Salomon Beer

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— Synchronizers play a key role in multi-clock domain systems on chip. Traditionally, improvement of synchronization parameters with scaling has been assumed. In particular, the resolution time constant (τ) has been expected to scale proportionally to the gate delay 'FO4'. Recent measurements, however, have yielded counterexamples showing a degradation of τ(More)
Recent synchronizer metastability measurements indicate degradation of MTBF with technology scaling, calling for measurement and calibration circuits in 65nm circuits and beyond. An on-chip metastability measurement circuit was fabricated in a 65nm 1.1V bulk CMOS. A fully digital on-chip measurement system is presented here that helps to characterize(More)
— Synchronizers are used to mitigate the effects of metastability in multiple clock domain System-on-Chip devices. In order to enable reliable synchronization, the synchronizer MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) should be much longer than the product lifetime. To achieve such high margins, multistage synchronizers are used. Several simulation methods have(More)
Recent synchronizer metastability measurements indicate degradation of MTBF with technology scaling, calling for measurement and calibration circuits in 65nm and below. Degradation of parameters can be even worse if the system is operated at extreme supply voltages and temperature conditions. In this work we study the behavior of synchronizers in a broad(More)
Better-Than-Worst-Case-Designs use timing speculation to run with a cycle period faster than the one required for worst-case conditions. This speculation may produce timing violations and metastability that result in failures and non-deterministic timing behavior. The effects of these phenomena are not always well understood by designers and researchers in(More)
— Special synchronizers exist for special clock relations such as mesochronous, multi-synchronous and ratiochronous clocks, while variants of N-flip-flop synchronizers are employed when the communicating clocks are asynchronous. N-flip-flop synchronizers are also used in all special cases, at the cost of longer latency than when using specialized(More)
—Razor-based circuits can run faster or at a lower voltage than those designed to work at the worst-case corner. However, all known implementations are prone to failures due to the non-deterministic timing behavior introduced by metasta-bility, even in the case where sufficient time is left for resolution. This paper analyzes the causes why Razor-based(More)