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Electroencephalographically (EEG) recorded slow wave activity (SWA, 1-4.5Hz), reflecting the depth of sleep, is suggested to play a crucial role in synaptic plasticity. Mapping of SWA by means of high-density EEG reveals that cortical regions showing signs of maturational changes (structural and behavioral) during childhood and adolescence exhibit more SWA.(More)
Sleep has beneficial effects on brain function and learning, which are reflected in plastic changes in the cortex. Early childhood is a time of rapid maturation in fundamental skills-e.g., language, cognitive control, working memory-that are predictive of future functioning. Little is currently known about the interactions between sleep and brain maturation(More)
Cognitive development is influenced by maturational changes in processing speed, a construct reflecting the rapidity of executing cognitive operations. Although cognitive ability and processing speed are linked to spindles and sigma power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), little is known about such associations in early childhood, a time of major(More)
Sleep is increasingly recognized as a key process in neurodevelopment. Animal data show that sleep is essential for the maturation of fundamental brain functions, and growing epidemiological findings indicate that children with early sleep disturbance suffer from later cognitive, attentional, and psychosocial problems. Still, major gaps exist in(More)
Caffeine is the most commonly ingested psychoactive drug worldwide with increasing consumption rates among young individuals. While caffeine leads to decreased sleep quality in adults, studies investigating how caffeine consumption affects children's and adolescents' sleep remain scarce. We explored the effects of regular caffeine consumption on sleep(More)
INTRODUCTION A large number of studies have investigated neural correlates of consciousness in adults. However, knowledge about brain function in children with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is very limited. We suggest that EEG recordings during sleep are a promising approach. In healthy adults as well as in children, it has been shown that the activity(More)
Sleep spindles, a prominent feature of the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), are linked to cognitive abilities. Early childhood is a time of rapid cognitive and neurophysiological maturation; however, little is known about developmental changes in sleep spindles. In this study, we longitudinally examined trajectories of(More)
The shift from a biphasic to a monophasic sleep schedule is a fundamental milestone in early childhood. This transition, however, may result in periods of acute sleep loss as children may nap on some but not all days. Although data indicating the behavioral consequences of nap deprivation in young children are accumulating, little is known about changes to(More)
Although all young children nap, the neurophysiological features and associated developmental trajectories of daytime sleep remain largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of napping physiology are fundamental to understanding sleep regulation during early childhood, a sensitive period in brain and behaviour development and a time when children transition from(More)
Brain networks respond to sleep deprivation or restriction with increased sleep depth, which is quantified as slow-wave activity (SWA) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). When adults are sleep deprived, this homeostatic response is most pronounced over prefrontal brain regions. However, it is unknown how children's developing brain networks respond to(More)