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Circulating fatty acids (FA) are associated with a multitude of chronic diseases. However, a major gap in establishing such relationships is the lack of accepted fatty acid reference ranges representing healthy individuals. Data on validated FA reference ranges would provide a better understanding of study baseline measures and aid in the evaluation and(More)
Inflammation is a recognized risk factor for the development of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Evidence suggests that individual fatty acids (FA) may have distinct influences on inflammatory processes. The goal of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional analysis to examine the associations between circulating FA and(More)
INTRODUCTION Past research has reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1/2) can influence plasma fatty acid (FA) profiles. Changes in FA profiles are known to influence inflammatory processes; therefore both FA and SNPs in FADS1/2 may affect inflammation. The goals of this study were to (i) examine the(More)
BACKGROUND The conjugated linoleic acid isomer cis9trans11 CLA can be endogenously synthesized from trans vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11) via desaturation at the delta 9 position catalyzed by the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), also known as delta-9 desaturase (D9D). Diet, hormonal regulation of gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have(More)
Typically fatty acids (FA) exert differential immunomodulatory effects with n-3 [α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and n-6 [linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA)] exerting anti- and pro-inflammatory effects, respectively. This over-simplified interpretation is confounded by a failure to account for(More)
BACKGROUND There is great interest in the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids and health. Yet, the combinatory effect of factors such as sex, ethnicity, genetic polymorphisms and hormonal contraceptives (HC) on the concentrations of these fatty acids is unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of FADS polymorphisms, and HC use in(More)
Breast cancer is attributable to modifiable risk factors including the intake of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). A key piece of evidence, yet to be addressed, that would demonstrate a causal relationship between n-3 PUFA and breast cancer, is a dose-dependent effect of n-3 PUFA on tumour outcomes. Thus, the objective of the present study was(More)
Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the(More)
BACKGROUND Trans fatty acids (TFAs) produced from industrial partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils have been the subject of much research regarding their negative effect on the development of chronic diseases, and recommendations to label foods with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and limit their levels were introduced in Canada in 2003 and 2007,(More)
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