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This meta-analysis reviews 208 laboratory studies of acute psychological stressors and tests a theoretical model delineating conditions capable of eliciting cortisol responses. Psychological stressors increased cortisol levels; however, effects varied widely across tasks. Consistent with the theoretical model, motivated performance tasks elicited cortisol(More)
Our program of research focuses on shame as a key emotional response to "social self" threats (i.e., social evaluation or rejection). We propose that shame may orchestrate specific patterns of psychobiological changes under these conditions. A series of studies demonstrates that acute threats to the social self increase proinflammatory cytokine activity and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if inducing self-blame would lead to increases in shame and guilt as well as increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and cortisol. Based on previous research and theory, it was hypothesized that induced shame would be specifically associated with elevations in proinflammatory cytokine activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS Healthy(More)
Approximately 30% of breast cancer survivors report persistent fatigue of unknown origin. We have previously shown that cancer-related fatigue is associated with alterations in immunological parameters and serum cortisol levels in breast cancer survivors. The current study examined the diurnal rhythm of salivary cortisol in fatigued and non-fatigued breast(More)
This study experimentally tested whether a stressor characterized by social-evaluative threat (SET), a context in which the self can be judged negatively by others, would elicit increases in proinflammatory cytokine activity and alter the regulation of this response. This hypothesis was derived in part from research on immunological responses to social(More)
BACKGROUND Previous laboratory studies have found a relationship between experimentally manipulated emotion regulation strategies such as suppression and reappraisal and cardiovascular reactivity. However, these studies have not examined trait forms of these strategies and cortisol responses. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship(More)
Perseverative cognition (i.e., rumination, worry) may amplify or maintain cortisol stress responses. The present study examined the effects of trait and state perseverative cognition (PC) on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We hypothesized that trait PC and state (prior day's) PC would be associated with greater CARs. Undergraduates scoring high(More)
BACKGROUND Recent research has supported the premise that performance conditions characterized by social-evaluative threat, in which an aspect of the self could be judged by others, are associated with cortisol responses. However, it remains unclear whether this effect is due to negative social evaluation per se or simply the presence of another during a(More)
Daily activities (zeitgebers) such as waking, eating, and exercising, done alone or in the presence of others, may help to entrain biological rhythms. To examine whether the relationship between zeitgebers and biological rhythms is altered in depression, this study tracked daily activity and cortisol secretion in 50 depressed and 50 control participants(More)