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Cartilage repair strategies aim to resurface a lesion with osteochondral tissue resembling native cartilage, but a variety of repair tissues are usually observed. Histology is an important structural outcome that could serve as an interim measure of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical studies. The purpose of this article is to propose guidelines for(More)
Umbilical cords as a source of stem cells are of increasing interest for cell therapies as they present little ethical consideration and are reported to contain immune privileged cells which may be suitable for allogeneic based therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sourced from several different cord regions, including artery, vein, cord lining, and(More)
The intervertebral disc is a cartilaginous structure that resembles articular cartilage in its biochemistry, but morphologically it is clearly different. It shows degenerative and ageing changes earlier than does any other connective tissue in the body. It is believed to be important clinically because there is an association of disc degeneration with back(More)
BACKGROUND Agonist-stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, generating the putative messenger phosphatidate (PA). Proposed functions for PA, and hence for PLD, include kinase activation, the regulation of small molecular weight GTP-binding proteins, actin polymerization and secretion. It has not been possible to(More)
INTRODUCTION Apoptosis has been reported to occur in the intervertebral disc. Elsewhere in the body, apoptotic cells are cleared from the system via phagocytosis by committed phagocytes such as macrophages, reducing the chance of subsequent inflammation. These cells, however, are not normally present in the disc. We investigated whether disc cells(More)
INTRODUCTION Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a significantly critical pathology that can eventually cause serious myelopathy. Ossification commences in the vertebral posterior longitudinal ligaments, and intensifies and spreads with the progression of the disease, resulting in osseous projections and compression of the spinal(More)
Autologous chondrocyte implantation is being used increasingly for the treatment of cartilage defects. In spite of this, there has been a paucity of objective, standardised assessment of the outcome and quality of repair tissue formed. We have investigated patients treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), some in conjunction with(More)
Elastic fibres have been revealed by both elastin immunostaining and conventional histological orcein-staining in the intervertebral discs of the bovine tail. These fibres are distributed in all regions of the disc but their organization varies from region to region. In the centre of the nucleus, long (> 150 microm) elastic fibres are orientated radially.(More)
The Drosophila tumour suppressor discs large (Dlg) is a cell-junction localized protein that is required for the maintenance of epithelial cyto-architecture and the negative control of cell proliferation. The mammalian homologue is likely to have a similar mode of action, and therefore functional perturbation of this protein may be linked to the development(More)