Sally K Richardson

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A quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the possibility that people's optimism is reduced if they experience a specific form of negative affect, namely, anxiety. The level of optimism held by two groups of English students toward a range of life events was examined. Students taking examinations, the experimental group, were in an anxious(More)
Substantial evidence suggest that people tend to be unrealistically optimistic that positive events will happen to them and that negative events will not. However, recent research indicates that under certain conditions they may be unrealistically pessimistic. Variations in the levels of optimism and pessimism experienced towards events are generally given(More)
Sixty-six community-residing elderly (mean age = 72.5) were categorized as depressed (mean = 11.3) or nondepressed (mean = 3.9) based on Beck Depression Inventory scores. After a pre-test battery measuring short-term memory and crystallized/fluid intelligence, the subjects responded to a word association task, disguised as a test of interpersonal empathy,(More)
Acknowledgments We wish to acknowledge the assistance that we received from the following people and organizations. First, we thank the University of South Carolina Rural Health Research Center, funded by the Office of Rural Health Policy, for sponsoring the study and the South Carolina Department of Health and Human Services and the West Virginia(More)
  • Andrew Verstein, BENCHMARK MANIPULATION, +32 authors Joan MacLeod
  • 2016
Substantial scholarship has questioned whether market manipulation is impossible and regulation unnecessary. This Article challenges orthodox un-derstandings of manipulation, showing that they reflect an obsolete view of markets. While manipulation skeptics discuss prices, markets focus on benchmarks of price—and so do the manipulators who prey upon them.(More)
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