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Sperm nuclear decondensing activity in mammalian oocytes is dependent upon the maturational state of the oocyte. It is maximal in mature, metaphase II oocytes and minimal or absent in immature germinal vesicle (GV) and fertilized pronuclear oocytes. Previous studies suggested that this difference may be due to the relative ability of an oocyte to reduce the(More)
Groups of eight adult male rats were given a single oral dose of 0 or 48 mg/kg of 1,3-dinitrobenzene and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 72, and 175 days posttreatment. The groups killed at 175 days were bred to untreated females during weeks 3, 4, 6, 9, 13, and 24. Decreased testis weight and testicular sperm numbers were observed by day 4; decreased(More)
An understanding of the relationship between altered sperm motion and sperm function (fertility) is important when interpreting the biological significance of toxicant-induced changes in sperm velocity in rodent test species. Previous studies showed that a brief (4-day) exposure of male hamsters to the model chemical alpha-chlorohydrin (ACH) results in(More)
Several decades ago it was reported that when adult male rats were exposed to a single injection of 50 mg/kg body weight ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) and mated with untreated females, average litter size was significantly reduced as early as 2 weeks later. Recently, we demonstrated that EDS exerts multiple effects in the epididymis of adult rats. Some of(More)
The aim of the Teplice Program is to investigate and assess the impact of air pollution on the health of the population in the district of Teplice, Czech Republic. Characterization of the air pollutants demonstrated unusually high concentrations during winter inversions of fine particles dominated by acidic sulfates, genotoxic organic compounds, and toxic(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether moderate cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in teenage men is associated with increases in disomic sperm and detectable changes in semen quality. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Military recruiting station, Teplice, Czech Republic. PATIENT(S) Ten current smokers (20 cigarettes per day for at least 2 years, exposure(More)
This study of male reproductive health in the Czech Republic resulted from community concern about potential adverse effects of air pollution. We compared young men (18 years of age) living in Teplice, a highly industrialized district with seasonally elevated levels of air pollution, to those from Prachatice, a rural district with relatively clean air.(More)
Reproductive toxicity studies are increasingly including assessments of sperm parameters including motility, morphology, and counts. While these assessments can provide valuable information for the determination of potential reproductive toxicity, the methods for conducting the assessments have not been well developed in all laboratories and are continually(More)
With sperm-egg fusion at the time of fertilization the gamete nuclei are remodeled from genetically quiescent structures into pronuclei capable of DNA synthesis. Features of this process that are critical to insure the genetic integrity of the zygote and the success of subsequent embryonic development include: oocyte responses that prevent polyspermy;(More)
BACKGROUND Chlorination of drinking water generates disinfection by-products (DBPs), which have been shown to disrupt spermatogenesis in rodents at high doses, suggesting that DBPs could pose a reproductive risk to men. In this study we assessed DBP exposure and testicular toxicity, as evidenced by altered semen quality. METHODS We conducted a cohort(More)