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OBJECTIVES To undertake a systematic review of the long-term effects of obesity treatments on body weight, risk factors for disease, and disease. METHODS The study encompassed three systematic reviews that examined different aspects of obesity treatments. (1) A systematic review of obesity treatments in adults where the methods of the Cochrane(More)
Government projections of future health care expenditures--a great concern given the aging baby-boom generation--are based on econometric regressions that control explicitly for age but do not control for end-of-life expenditures. Because expenditures increase dramatically on average at the end of life, predictions of future cost distributions based on(More)
Past empirical work has shown a negative relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and wages in most cases. We improve on this work by allowing the marginal effect of non-linear BMI groups to vary by gender, age, and type of interpersonal relationships required in each occupation. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1982-1998). We(More)
The selection arena hypothesis offers one answer to a puzzling question. Why do some organisms produce many more fertilized zygotes than are actually reared to hatching, birth, or release-then neglect, discard, resorb, or eat some of them, or allow them to eat each other? It makes four assumptions: (1) zygotes are cheap; (2) after conception the investment(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to indoor allergens contributes to increased asthma morbidity. The Inner-City Asthma Study, a randomized trial involving home environmental allergen and irritant remediation among children aged 6 through 11 years with moderate-to-severe asthma, successfully reduced asthma symptoms. A cost-effectiveness analysis can help stakeholders to(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this work was to determine 1-year medical outcomes, nursing home transfer, and functional change of assisted living (AL) residents and their relationship to care. METHODS On-site interviews and observations regarding the status and care of 2,078 residents in 193 facilities across four states were conducted; follow-up was by(More)
AIMS This paper is a report of a study of association between workplace injuries experienced by nursing assistants in nursing homes in the United States and four factors that may affect injury rates: initial nursing assistant training, training at the current facility, lifting devices, and time to execute daily duties. BACKGROUND High injury rates among(More)
PURPOSE The goals of this study are to describe the current state of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) care and residents in comparison with nursing home (NH) care and residents, identify different types of RC/AL care and residents, and consider how variation in RC/AL case-mix reflects differences in care provision and/or consumer preference. (More)
While medications are one of the most stable categories of health care expenses, the actual composition of drug products used may be highly variable over time. Medicare beneficiaries selecting among Part D prescription drug plans (PDPs) are often advised to base plan selection on current medication lists. However, this approach may lead to higher(More)
BACKGROUND Older adults close to retirement age show the lowest level of physical activity. Changes in lifestyle with retirement may alter physical activity levels. This study investigated whether retirement changes physical activity and how the effect differs by occupation type and wealth level. METHODS This longitudinal study used the Health and(More)