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CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are important for host defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. How and when these T cells become activated physiologically during infection remains unknown. Our data support a model in which NKT cells use a unique activation mechanism not requiring their recognition of microbial antigens. Instead, weak(More)
Peptide antigens are presented to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, with endogenous peptides presented by MHC class I and exogenous peptides presented by MHC class II. In contrast to the MHC system, CD1 molecules bind lipid antigens that are presented at the antigen-presenting cell (APC) surface to lipid antigen-reactive T cells.(More)
In autoimmune type 1 diabetes, pathogenic T lymphocytes are associated with the specific destruction of insulin-producing beta-islet cells. Identification of the autoantigens involved in triggering this process is a central question. Here we examined T cells from pancreatic draining lymph nodes, the site of islet-cell-specific self-antigen presentation. We(More)
TIM-3 is a molecule selectively expressed on a subset of murine IFN-gamma-secreting T helper 1 (Th1) cells but not Th2 cells, and regulates Th1 immunity and tolerance in vivo. At this time little is known about the role of TIM-3 on human T cells. To determine if TIM-3 similarly identifies and regulates Th1 cells in humans, we generated a panel of mAb(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Childhood diabetes is thought to usually result from autoimmune beta cell destruction (type 1A) with eventual total loss of beta cells. Analysis of C-peptide in children characterised at diabetes onset for autoantibodies shows heterogeneous preservation of insulin secretion in long-standing diabetes. The aim of this study was to characterise(More)
Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM) is a disease controlled by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) which results from T-cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. The incomplete concordance in identical twins and the presence of autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies in individuals who do not develop diabetes suggest(More)
Oral administration of antigen is a long recognized method of inducing systemic immune tolerance. In animals with experimental autoimmune disease, a major mechanism of oral tolerance triggered by oral administration of antigen involves the induction of regulatory T cells that mediate active suppression by secreting the cytokine TGF-beta 1. Multiple(More)
Quantitative and qualitative defects in CD1d-restricted T cells have been demonstrated in human and murine autoimmune diseases. To investigate the transcriptional consequences of T cell receptor activation in human Valpha24JalphaQ T cell clones, DNA microarrays were used to quantitate changes in mRNA levels after anti-CD3 stimulation of clones derived from(More)
Insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease mediated by T lymphocytes recognizing pancreatic islet cell antigens. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) appears to be an important autoantigen in the disease. However, T cells from both patients with type 1 diabetes and healthy subjects vigorously proliferate in response to GAD65 stimulation ex(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by infiltration of pathogenic immune cells in the CNS resulting in destruction of the myelin sheath and surrounding axons. We and others have previously measured the frequency of human myelin-reactive T cells in peripheral blood. Using T cell cloning techniques, a modest increase in the(More)