Sally C. Kent

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CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are important for host defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. How and when these T cells become activated physiologically during infection remains unknown. Our data support a model in which NKT cells use a unique activation mechanism not requiring their recognition of microbial antigens. Instead, weak(More)
In autoimmune type 1 diabetes, pathogenic T lymphocytes are associated with the specific destruction of insulin-producing beta-islet cells. Identification of the autoantigens involved in triggering this process is a central question. Here we examined T cells from pancreatic draining lymph nodes, the site of islet-cell-specific self-antigen presentation. We(More)
Oral administration of antigen is a long recognized method of inducing systemic immune tolerance. In animals with experimental autoimmune disease, a major mechanism of oral tolerance triggered by oral administration of antigen involves the induction of regulatory T cells that mediate active suppression by secreting the cytokine TGF-beta 1. Multiple(More)
TIM-3 is a molecule selectively expressed on a subset of murine IFN-gamma-secreting T helper 1 (Th1) cells but not Th2 cells, and regulates Th1 immunity and tolerance in vivo. At this time little is known about the role of TIM-3 on human T cells. To determine if TIM-3 similarly identifies and regulates Th1 cells in humans, we generated a panel of mAb(More)
Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM) is a disease controlled by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) which results from T-cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. The incomplete concordance in identical twins and the presence of autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies in individuals who do not develop diabetes suggest(More)
Peptide antigens are presented to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, with endogenous peptides presented by MHC class I and exogenous peptides presented by MHC class II. In contrast to the MHC system, CD1 molecules bind lipid antigens that are presented at the antigen-presenting cell (APC) surface to lipid antigen-reactive T cells.(More)
Childhood diabetes is thought to usually result from autoimmune beta cell destruction (type 1A) with eventual total loss of beta cells. Analysis of C-peptide in children characterised at diabetes onset for autoantibodies shows heterogeneous preservation of insulin secretion in long-standing diabetes. The aim of this study was to characterise the pancreases(More)
Proliferation of human CD4+ alphabeta T cells expressing a natural killer cell activating receptor (NKAR) has been shown to be enhanced, particularly in response to low doses of antigen, if the target cells present appropriate human class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Here, we show that NKAR also enhance proliferation and killing of(More)
Insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease mediated by T lymphocytes recognizing pancreatic islet cell antigens. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) appears to be an important autoantigen in the disease. However, T cells from both patients with type 1 diabetes and healthy subjects vigorously proliferate in response to GAD65 stimulation ex(More)
Autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D) are thought to have a Th1/Th17 bias. The underlying mechanisms driving the activation and differentiation of these proinflammatory T cells are unknown. We examined the monocytes isolated directly from the blood of T1D patients and found they spontaneously secreted the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and(More)