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We propose a flexible method of extending a study based on conditional power. The possibility for extension when the p value at the planned end is small but not statistically significant is built in to the design of the study. The significance of the treatment difference at the planned end is used to determine the number of additional observations needed(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence, predictive factors, morbidity, and mortality associated with the development of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVTs) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are poorly defined. METHODS In the Digitalis Investigation Group trial, patients with CHF who were in sinus rhythm were randomly assigned to digoxin (n = 3,889)(More)
PURPOSE Standardized definitions of breast cancer clinical trial end points must be adopted to permit the consistent interpretation and analysis of breast cancer clinical trials and to facilitate cross-trial comparisons and meta-analyses. Standardizing terms will allow for uniformity in data collection across studies, which will optimize clinical trial(More)
BACKGROUND Recently we reported that intracoronary administration of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent angiogenic peptide, increases collateral blood flow in dogs subjected to progressive left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) occlusion. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of systemically administered bFGF on collateral blood(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown that the angiogenic peptides basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhance canine coronary collateral development when administered for > or = 4 weeks. bFGF, a pluripotent mitogen of mesodermally derived cells, could theoretically exacerbate neointimal smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, a(More)
Future progress in improving cancer therapy can be expedited by better prioritization of new treatments for phase III evaluation. Historically, phase II trials have been key components in the prioritization process. There has been a long-standing interest in using phase II trials with randomization against a standard-treatment control arm or an additional(More)
A number of reports have described the frequency of coronary arterial narrowing in patients with valvular aortic stenosis. No published reports have examined the structure of the stenotic aortic valve in adults and related the valve structure to variables, including coronary arterial narrowing, useful in predicting that structure. One hundred eighty-eight(More)
OBJECTIVE Diets reduced in fat and cholesterol are recommended for children over 2 years of age, yet long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. This study tests the long-term efficacy and safety of a cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention in children. METHODS Six hundred sixty-three children 8 to 10 years of age with elevated low-density lipoprotein(More)
Traditional phase I dose-finding studies for chemotoxic agents base dose escalation on toxicity, with escalation continuing until unacceptable toxicity is observed. Recent development of molecularly targeted agents that have little or no toxicity in the therapeutic dose range has raised questions over the best study designs for phase I studies. Two types of(More)
Progression-free survival is an attractive end point for clinical trials when an overall survival end point may be confounded by additional treatments administered after progression. When a trial is performed in an unblinded manner, however, there is the potential for bias between the treatment arms because of the subjective aspects of the progression end(More)