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Our understanding of the impact of recombination, mutation, genetic drift, and selection on the evolution of a single gene is still limited. Here we investigate the impact of all these evolutionary forces at the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene that evolves under a balancing mode of selection. Females are heterozygous at the csd gene and males are(More)
The giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata), like all other members of the genus Apis, has a complex mating system in which the queens and males (drones) mate at spatially defined drone congregation areas (DCAs). Here, we studied the temporal genetic structure of a DCA of A. dorsata over an 8-day time window by the genotyping of sampled drones with(More)
The existence of behavioral traits connected to defense against pathogens manifests the importance of pathogens in the evolution of social insects. However, very little is known about how pathogen pressure has affected the molecular evolution of genes involved in their innate immune system. We have studied the sequence evolution of several immune genes in(More)
Association between larger ovaries and pollen foraging in queenless Apis cerana workers supports the reproductive ground-plan hypothesis of social evolution. Article: Introduction Based on the ovarian ground-plan hypothesis (West-Eberhard 1987; West-Eberhard 1996) the reproductive ground-plan hypothesis of social evolution has recently been proposed as a(More)
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