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BACKGROUND With the aim of populating the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) with parameters of effectiveness of existing interventions, we conducted a systematic review of the literature assessing the effect of pneumonia case management on mortality from childhood pneumonia. METHODS This review covered the following interventions: community case management with(More)
OBJECTIVE Financing health services is a challenge for health policy makers world over, especially in developing countries. Alternate mechanisms such as user fees are being proposed. However, there is a feeling that in developing countries, users of government hospitals spend appreciable personal income to obtain "free services" at these facilities. (More)
BACKGROUND First dose oral co-trimoxazole and referral are recommended for WHO-defined severe pneumonia. Difficulties with referral compliance are reported in many low-resource settings, resulting in low access to appropriate treatment. The objective in this study was to assess whether community case management by lady health workers (LHWs) with oral(More)
Verbal autopsy (VA) aims to estimate a community's mortality experience in the absence of contact with formal registration or health care systems. Application of VA to neonatal deaths is problematic as the agonal phase of a neonatal death tends to be indistinct. This is the first attempt to validate the technique exclusively on newborns who died. Seriously(More)
BACKGROUND Population-based estimates of maternal mortality from Pakistan are inadequate to define the magnitude of the problem or provide information on clinical causes and determinants. METHODS Surveys were conducted in selected clusters in Karachi, Balochistan and North West Frontier Province from 1989-1992. Pre-coded questionnaires were administered(More)
AIMS To systematically identify global research gaps and resource priorities for integrated community case management (iCCM). METHODS An iCCM Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) Advisory Group, in collaboration with the Community Case Management Operational Research Group (CCM ORG) identified experts to participate in a CHNRI research(More)
Health planners commonly use geographic proximity to define access to health services. However, effective access to case management requires reliable access to a trained, supplied provider. We defined effective access as the proportion of the study population with geographic access, corrected for other barriers, staffing patterns, and medicine availability.(More)
Road traffic accidents result in substantial injury and death in Karachi. We reviewed the patient logs of the two largest government hospitals in Karachi between December 1993 and February 1994 to identify those persons most likely to be injured in a road traffic accident and to identify the vehicle types which were most likely to be involved. 86% of 727(More)
All women should have access to high quality maternity services-but what do we know about the health care available to and used by women? With a focus on low-income and middle-income countries, we present data that policy makers and planners can use to evaluate whether maternal health services are functioning to meet needs of women nationally, and(More)
BACKGROUND Despite advances in childhood pneumonia management, it remains a major killer of children worldwide. We sought to estimate global treatment failure rates in children aged 2-59 months with World Health Organization-defined severe pneumonia. METHODS We pooled data from 4 severe pneumonia studies conducted during 1999-2009 using similar(More)