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This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
Mammalian promoters can be separated into two classes, conserved TATA box-enriched promoters, which initiate at a well-defined site, and more plastic, broad and evolvable CpG-rich promoters. We have sequenced tags corresponding to several hundred thousand transcription start sites (TSSs) in the mouse and human genomes, allowing precise analysis of the(More)
Antisense transcription (transcription from the opposite strand to a protein-coding or sense strand) has been ascribed roles in gene regulation involving degradation of the corresponding sense transcripts (RNA interference), as well as gene silencing at the chromatin level. Global transcriptome analysis provides evidence that a large proportion of the(More)
Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) catalyzes the fourth step of protein synthesis in vitro: disassembly of the post-termination complex of ribosomes, mRNA and tRNA. We now report the first in vivo evidence of RRF function using 12 temperature-sensitive Escherichia coli mutants which we isolated in this study. At non-permissive temperatures, most of the(More)
Extensive animal studies suggest neuropeptide Y (NPY) to be involved in coping with a wide range of stressors, and that impaired central NPY signalling could be involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. Human studies of central NPY levels in depression have, however, been inconclusive. Here, we examined levels of NPY-like immunoreactivity(More)
Translation termination in vivo was studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a translation-assay system. Codon changes that were made at position -2 relative to the stop codon, gave a 3.5-fold effect on termination in a release-factor-defective (sup45) mutant strain, in line with the effect observed in a wild-type strain. The influence of the -2(More)
BACKGROUND Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a major endogenous regulator of anxiety-related behaviors and emotionality. Transgenic work with NPY and null-mutant mice have implicated NPY in the control of alcohol consumption, suggesting that genetic variation of the prepro-NPY gene may also contribute to the heritability of alcoholism. The aim of this study was to(More)
There is a large inter-individual variation in circulating leptin concentrations at each level of body fat content. The reason for this is unknown. We investigated whether a polymorphism in the promoter region of the leptin gene (-2548G/A) influences gene transcription and leptin expression in 39 non-obese female subjects. Eleven subjects were homozygous(More)
Forty-two different sense codons, coding for all 20 amino acids, were placed at the ribosomal E site location, two codons upstream of a UGA or UAG codon. The influence of these variable codons on readthrough of the stop codons was measured in Escherichia coli. A 30-fold difference in readthrough of the UGA codon was observed. Readthrough is not related to(More)
Efficiency of translation termination is affected if the last two amino acids in the nascent peptide are changed [1,2]. By changing the corresponding codons upstream of the stop signal UGAA, we have analyzed if the -3 to -6 amino acids at the C-terminal region of the nascent peptide also affect termination. Lysine at position -3 gave increased readthrough,(More)