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OBJECTIVES India bears a significant portion of the global tobacco burden with high prevalence of tobacco use. This study examines the socioeconomic patterning of tobacco use and identifies the changing gender and socioeconomic dynamics in light of the Cigarette Epidemic Model. DESIGN Secondary analyses of second and third National Family Health Survey(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in India have identified marked variations in overall tobacco use between socio-economic groups. We examined whether associations between socio-economic status (SES) and tobacco use varied across individual Indian states by tobacco type. METHODS Cross-sectional survey of 100,855 households in 24 Indian states and Union Territories(More)
OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the pattern of price elasticity of three major tobacco products (bidi, cigarette and leaf tobacco) by economic groups of population based on household monthly per capita consumption expenditure in India and (2) assess the effect of tax increases on tobacco consumption and revenue across expenditure(More)
Private health care in low-income and middle-income countries is very extensive and very heterogeneous, ranging from itinerant medicine sellers, through millions of independent practitioners-both unlicensed and licensed-to corporate hospital chains and large private insurers. Policies for universal health coverage (UHC) must address this complex private(More)
In the background of ongoing health sector reforms in India, the paper investigates the magnitude and trends in out-of-pocket and catastrophic payments for key population sub-groups. Data from three rounds of nationally representative consumer expenditure surveys (1999-2000, 2004-05 and 2011-12) were pooled to assess changes over time in a range of(More)
INTRODUCTION India has experienced marked sociocultural change, economic growth and industry promotion of tobacco products over the past decade. Little is known about the influence of these factors on socioeconomic patterning of tobacco use. This study examines trends in tobacco use by socioeconomic status (SES) in India between 2000 and 2012. METHODS We(More)
OBJECTIVES It can be argued that with several players marketing a large number of brands, the pharmaceutical market in India is competitive. However, the pharmaceutical market should not be studied as a single market but, as a sum total of a large number of individual sub-markets. This paper examines the methodological issues with respect to defining the(More)
INTRODUCTION While a number of strategies are being implemented to control cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the cost-effectiveness of these in the South Asian context has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to systematically review the economic (cost-effectiveness) evidence available on the individual-, group- and(More)
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