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Antipsychotic drugs are widely used not only for schizophrenia, but also for mood disorders such as bipolar disorder and depression. To evaluate the interactions between antipsychotics and drugs for mood disorders in modulating extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), we examined the effects of antidepressants and mood-stabilizing drugs on haloperidol(More)
Postmitotic neurons need to keep their cell cycle under control to survive and maintain a differentiated state. This study aims to test the hypothesis that the chemokine CXCL12 regulates neuronal survival and differentiation by promoting Rb function, as suggested by previous studies showing that CXCL12 protects neurons from apoptosis induced by Rb loss. To(More)
Dopamine D(3) receptors are highly expressed in the cerebellum; however, their pathophysiological functions are not fully understood. Here, we conducted microinjection studies to clarify the role of cerebellar D(3) receptors in modulating locomotion and cataleptogenicity in rats. Microinjection of the preferential D(3) agonist(More)
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit various clinical symptoms including positive and negative symptoms, neurocognitive impairments and mood disturbances. Although a series of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) (e.g., risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine) have been developed in the past two decades, clinical reports do not necessarily show advantages(More)
The serotonergic nervous system plays crucial roles in regulating psycho-emotional, cognitive, sensori-motor and autonomic functions. It is now known that multiple serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptors regulate extrapyramidal motor functions, which are implicated in pathogenesis and/or treatment of various neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson's(More)
BACKGROUND The use of shRNAs to downregulate the expression of specific genes is now relatively routine in experimentation but still hypothetical for clinical application. A potential therapeutic approach for HIV-1 disease is shRNA mediated downregulation of the HIV-1 co-receptor, CCR5. It is increasingly recognized that siRNAs and shRNAs can have(More)
We examined the effects of JP-1302 (a selective alpha2C antagonist), BRL-44408 (a selective alpha2A antagonist) and yohimbine (a non-selective alpha2 antagonist) on haloperidol-induced bradykinesia and catalepsy in mice to elucidate the role of alpha2 adrenoceptor subtypes in modifying extrapyramidal motor disorders. JP-1302 (0.1-1 mg/kg, s.c.)(More)
The inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channel Kir4.1 in brain astrocytes mediates spatial K(+) buffering and regulates neural activities. Recent studies have shown that loss-of-function mutations in the human gene KCNJ10 encoding Kir4.1 cause epileptic seizures, suggesting a close relationship between the Kir4.1 channel function and epileptogenesis. Here,(More)
Down-regulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 holds significant potential for long-term protection against HIV-1 in patients. Using the humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (hu-BLT) mouse model which allows investigation of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) transplant and immune system reconstitution as well as HIV-1 infection, we previously(More)
Previous studies have revealed that 5-HT(1A) agonists ameliorate antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) through postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. Here, we conducted an intracerebral microinjection study of (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin ((+/-)8-OH-DPAT) to determine the action site of the 5-HT(1A) agonist in alleviating EPS.(More)