Sakae Toyoda

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A molecular analysis of betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers and a N(2)O isotopomer analysis were conducted to study the sources of N(2)O emissions during the cow manure composting process. Much NO(2)(-)-N and NO(3)(-)-N and the Nitrosomonas europaea-like amoA gene were detected at the surface, especially at the top of the composting pile, suggesting that(More)
[1] Although the oceans are a significant source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, the magnitude and characteristics of this source are poorly constrained. We present here stable isotope and isotopomer (intramolecular distribution of N within the linear NNO molecule) results for N2O and oxygen stable isotopic data for dissolved O2(More)
River water has been suggested as a potential source of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a greenhouse gas that is accumulating rapidly in the troposphere and which is a precursor to stratospheric NOx that depletes ozone. Previous studies on freshwater N2O sources have specifically examined estuaries where sedimentary N2O production might be important and a few(More)
The N2O and N2 fluxes emitted from a temperate UK grassland soil after fertiliser application (equivalent to 25 and 75 kg N ha(-1)) were simultaneously measured, using a new automated soil incubation system, which replaces soil atmosphere (N2 dominated) with a He+O2 mixture. Dual isotope and isotopomer ratios of the emitted N2O were also determined. Total(More)
Wastewater treatment processes are believed to be anthropogenic sources of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)). However, few studies have examined the mechanisms and controlling factors in production of these greenhouse gases in complex bacterial systems. To elucidate production and consumption mechanisms of N(2)O and CH(4) in microbial consortia(More)
Composting is the major technology in the treatment of animal manure and is a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. Although the microbiological processes of both nitrification and denitrification are involved in composting, the key players in these pathways have not been well identified. Recent molecular microbiological methodologies have revealed the(More)
[1] Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important atmospheric greenhouse gas and is involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. Analysis of the isotopomer ratios of N2O (i.e., the intramolecular distribution of N within the linear NNO molecule and the conventional N and O isotope ratios) can elucidate the mechanisms of N2O production and destruction. We analyzed the(More)
There is an urgent need to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of N(2)O fluxes in order that national policies can be developed to reduce emissions of N(2)O from soils. There are only limited data on temporal and diurnal patterns of N(2)O fluxes to the atmosphere, mainly due to constraints in the measurement techniques. In this paper we present the(More)
During the dairy manure composting process, significant nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions occur just after the pile turnings. To understand the characteristics of this N2O emission, samples were taken from the compost surface and core independently, and the N2O production was monitored in laboratory incubation experiments. Equal amounts of surface and core(More)
Fossil fuel combustion is the second largest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) after agriculture. The estimated global N2O flux from combustion sources, as well as from other sources, still has a large uncertainty. Herein, we characterize automobile sources using N2O isotopomer ratios (nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios and intramolecular site(More)