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Hands often become contaminated with respiratory viruses, either directly or through contact with contaminated surfaces. Spread of such viruses could then occur by touching the nasal mucosa or the conjunctivae. In this quantitative study, we compared the survival of mucin-suspended human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3) and rhinovirus 14 (RV-14) and the(More)
Ten antiseptic formulations, an unmedicated liquid soap, and tap water alone were compared for their capacities to eliminate human rotavirus from the finger pads of adult volunteers; three of the antiseptics, the soap, and the tap water alone were also tested against Escherichia coli. A fecal suspension of virus or bacterium was placed on each finger pad(More)
In developing countries rotavirus infections account for nearly 6% of all diarrheal episodes and for 20% of diarrhea-associated deaths of young children. Even in industrialized countries rotavirus diarrhea in the young is among the leading causes of hospitalization. In temperate regions institutional outbreaks of the disease occur mainly in cold dry(More)
We tested the survival of the Wa strain of human rotavirus on the hands of volunteers and also studied infectious virus transfer between animate and inanimate (stainless steel disks) surfaces. The virus was diluted in a 10% suspension of feces, and 10 microliters (1 X 10(3) to 4 X 10(4) PFU) was placed on each of the four fingerpads of the left hand. One(More)
We compared the efficiency of paper, cloth, and electric warm air drying in eliminating rotaviruses and Escherichia coli remaining on finger pads washed with 70% isopropanol, a medicated liquid soap, an unmedicated liquid soap, or tap water alone. The contaminated area on the finger pads of a volunteer was exposed to the hand-washing agent for 10 seconds(More)
Enterovirus 70 (EV-70) has caused at least two pandemics and several major epidemics of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in the past 18 years, with the largest number of cases occurring in the coastal areas of the tropics. The exact means of its spread are not known, but fomites and hands contaminated by them are the most likely vehicles. We,(More)
Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The(More)
INTRODUCTION There are no studies from Pakistan that describe stroke presentation rates or factors associated with early or delayed presentation. This is important to know because current clinical protocols limit the use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), the only available therapy for acute ischemic stroke, to a three-hour window from(More)
This study characterizes the transport of [1-14C]glycyl-L-proline into purified brush border membrane vesicles prepared from human small intestine. Time-course uptake curves of glycyl-L-proline were similar under sodium thiocyanate or potassium thiocyanate gradient conditions (extravesicular greater than intravesicular) and did not show any overshoot(More)
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated a complex Spetzler-Martin grade 5 left parietal AVM supplied by multiple pial and dural arterial feeders with flow-induced intracranial aneurysms (notably along the basilar artery and anterior communicating artery complex). Additional DSA findings identified high-flow arteriovenous shunting, dural(More)