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We developed a dispersal method for multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) that allows quantitative assessment of dispersion on profibrogenic responses in tissue culture cells and in mouse lung. We demonstrate that the dispersal of as-prepared (AP), purified (PD), and carboxylated (COOH) MWCNTs by bovine serum albumin (BSA) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine(More)
Surface-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP) can be used as an efficient and safe carrier for bioactive molecules. In order to make the MSNP a more efficient delivery system, we modified the surface of the particles by a functional group that enhances cellular uptake and allows nucleic acid delivery in addition to traditional drug delivery.(More)
Accurate evaluation of engineered nanomaterial toxicity requires not only comprehensive physical-chemical characterization of nanomaterials as produced, but also thorough understanding of nanomaterial properties and behavior under conditions similar to those used for in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. In this investigation, TiO(2) nanoparticles were(More)
The rate of expansion of nanomaterials calls for the consideration of appropriate toxicological paradigms in the safety assessment of nanomaterials. We advocate a predictive toxicological paradigm for the assessment of nanomaterial hazards. The predictive toxicological approach is defined as establishing and using mechanisms and pathways of injury at a(More)
We have recently shown that the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn(2+) shedding leads to a series of sublethal and lethal toxicological responses at the cellular level that can be alleviated by iron doping. Iron doping changes the particle matrix and slows the rate of particle dissolution. To determine whether iron doping of ZnO also leads to lesser(More)
A classification-based cytotoxicity nanostructure-activity relationship (nanoSAR) is presented based on a set of nine metal oxide nanoparticles to which transformed bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed over a range of concentrations (0.375-200 mg L(-1) ) and exposure times up to 24 h. The nanoSAR is developed using cytotoxicity data from a(More)
In vivo studies have demonstrated that the state of dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) plays an important role in generating adverse pulmonary effects. However, little has been done to develop reproducible and quantifiable dispersion techniques to conduct mechanistic studies in vitro. This study was to evaluate the dispersion of multiwalled carbon(More)
The establishment of verifiably safe nanotechnology requires the development of assessment tools to identify hazardous nanomaterial properties that could be modified to improve nanomaterial safety. While there is a lot of debate of what constitutes appropriate safety screening methods, one approach is to use the assessment of cellular injury pathways to(More)
Most in vitro toxicity studies on engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) use transformed rather than primary cells for logistical reasons. However, primary cells may provide a more appropriate connection to in vivo toxicity because these cells maintain their phenotypic fidelity and are also capable of differentiating into lineages that may be differently affected(More)
While it has been shown that high aspect ratio nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes and TiO(2) nanowires can induce toxicity by acting as fiber-like substances that damage the lysosome, it is not clear what the critical lengths and aspect ratios are that induce this type of toxicity. To answer this question, we synthesized a series of cerium oxide (CeO(2))(More)