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Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition, with much of the clinical disability resulting from disruption of white matter tracts. Recent reports suggest a component of glutamate excitotoxicity in spinal cord injury. In this study, the role of glutamate and mechanism of release of this excitotoxin were investigated in rat dorsal column slices subjected(More)
Spinal cord injury involves a component of glutamate-mediated white matter damage, but the cellular targets, receptors, and ions involved are poorly understood. Mechanisms of excitotoxicity were examined in an in vitro model of isolated spinal dorsal columns. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were irreversibly reduced to 43% of control after 3 hr of 1 mM(More)
Excitotoxic mechanisms involving alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors play an important role in mediating cellular damage in spinal cord injury. However, the precise cellular mechanisms of glutamate release from non-synaptic white matter are not well understood. We examined how the collapse of transmembrane Na(+)(More)
Neural cell fate specification is well understood in the embryonic cerebral cortex, where the proneural genes Neurog2 and Ascl1 are key cell fate determinants. What is less well understood is how cellular diversity is generated in brain tumors. Gliomas and glioneuronal tumors, which are often localized in the cerebrum, are both characterized by a neoplastic(More)
The three-layered piriform cortex, an integral part of the olfactory system, processes odor information relayed by olfactory bulb mitral cells. Specifically, mitral cell axons form the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) by targeting lateral olfactory tract (lot) guidepost cells in the piriform cortex. While lot cells and other piriform cortical neurons share a(More)
Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition in which most of the clinical disability results from dysfunction of white matter tracts. Excessive cellular Ca(2+) accumulation is a common phenomenon after anoxia/ischemia or mechanical trauma to white matter, leading to irreversible injury because of overactivation of multiple Ca(2+)-dependent biochemical(More)
The neocortex is comprised of six neuronal layers that are generated in a defined temporal sequence. While extrinsic and intrinsic cues are known to regulate the sequential production of neocortical neurons, how these factors interact and function in a coordinated manner is poorly understood. The proneural gene Neurog2 is expressed in progenitors throughout(More)
Progenitor cells undergo a series of stable identity transitions on their way to becoming fully differentiated cells with unique identities. Each cellular transition requires that new sets of genes are expressed, while alternative genetic programs are concurrently repressed. Here, we investigated how the proneural gene Neurog2 simultaneously activates and(More)
Imprinted genes are dosage sensitive, and their dysregulated expression is linked to disorders of growth and proliferation, including fetal and postnatal growth restriction. Common sequelae of growth disorders include neurodevelopmental defects, some of which are indirectly related to placental insufficiency. However, several growth-associated imprinted(More)
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