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BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with emerging evidence that it is associated with retinal ganglion cell loss; however, few data exist to establish this association. OBJECTIVE To determine whether macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), as quantitatively measured by(More)
Cerebral abnormalities such as white matter hyperintensity (WMH), cortical infarct (CI), and lacunar infarct (LI) are of clinical importance and frequently present in patients with stroke and dementia. Up to date, there are limited algorithms available to automatically delineate these cerebral abnormalities partially due to their complex appearance in MR(More)
BACKGROUND Although cerebral small-vessel disease has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cerebral microcirculation is difficult to visualize directly in vivo. Because the retina provides a noninvasive window to assess the microcirculation, we determined whether quantitatively measured retinal microvascular parameters are(More)
BACKGROUND Retinal microvascular network changes have been found in patients with age-related brain diseases such as stroke and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. We examine whether retinal microvascular network changes are also present in preclinical stages of dementia. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of 300 Chinese participants (age: ≥60(More)
BACKGROUND The burden of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, dementia, and death. WMH are highly heritable, but their genetic underpinnings are incompletely characterized. To identify novel genetic variants influencing WMH burden, we conducted a meta-analysis of multiethnic genome-wide association(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The prevalence of silent brain infarcts varies from 8% to 28% in the general elderly population. Silent brain infarcts are associated with increased risk of subsequent stroke and cognitive dysfunction. By definition, silent strokes lack clinically overt stroke-like symptoms and fail to come to clinical attention; however, impaired(More)
INTRODUCTION This is the first study to assess cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) on 3 tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a memory clinic population. METHODS We included 238 consecutive patients (aged 72.5 ± 9.1 years) from a memory clinic in Singapore. All patients underwent extensive neurological and neuropsychological testing and 3T MRI on the(More)
Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known(More)
INTRODUCTION Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS), or perivascular spaces, are compartments of interstitial fluid enclosing cerebral blood vessels and are potential imaging markers of various underlying brain pathologies. Despite a growing interest in the study of enlarged VRS, the heterogeneity in rating and quantification methods combined with small sample sizes(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of and associated factors for cognitive impairment and dementia in community dwelling Chinese from Singapore. METHODS This study includes Chinese subjects from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore (EDIS) study, aged ≥60 years, who underwent comprehensive examinations, including cognitive screening with the locally(More)