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Eighteen patients with refractory and progressive solid tumors were treated with a single round of triple modified oncolytic adenovirus (Ad5/3-Cox2L-D24). Ad5/3-Cox2L-D24 is the first non-Coxsackie-adenovirus receptor-binding oncolytic adenovirus used in humans. Grades 1-2 flu-like symptoms, fever, and fatigue were seen in most patients, whereas(More)
Prior infection has primed most adult humans for a rapid neutralizing antibody (NAb) response when re-exposed to adenovirus. NAb induction can severely limit the efficacy of systemic re-administration of adenoviral gene therapy. We hypothesized that changing the fiber knob could overcome NAb. Immune-competent mice were exposed to serotype 5 adenovirus(More)
Promising clinical results have been achieved with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as ipilimumab and tremelimumab that block cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, CD152). However, systemic administration of these agents also has the potential for severe immune-related adverse events. Thus, local production might allow higher concentrations(More)
Augmenting antitumor immunity is a promising way to enhance the potency of oncolytic adenoviral therapy. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) can mediate antitumor effects by recruiting natural killer cells and by induction of tumor-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Serotype 5 adenoviruses (Ad5) are commonly used in cancer gene(More)
Oncolytic adenoviruses and certain chemotherapeutics can induce autophagy and immunogenic cancer cell death. We hypothesized that the combination of oncolytic adenovirus with low-dose temozolomide (TMZ) is safe, effective, and capable of inducing antitumor immune responses. Metronomic low-dose cyclophosphamide (CP) was added to selectively reduce regulatory(More)
The immunosuppressive environment of advanced tumors is a primary obstacle to the efficacy of immunostimulatory and vaccine approaches. Here, we report an approach to arm an oncolytic virus with CD40 ligand (CD40L) to stimulate beneficial immunologic responses in patients. A double-targeted chimeric adenovirus controlled by the hTERT promoter and expressing(More)
PURPOSE Multiple injections of oncolytic adenovirus could enhance immunologic response. In the first part of this article, the focus was on immunologic aspects. Sixty patients previously naïve to oncolytic virus and who had white blood cells available were treated. Thirty-nine of 60 were assessed after a single virus administration, whereas 21 of 60(More)
Twenty-five patients with chemotherapy refractory cancer were treated with a fully serotype 3-based oncolytic adenovirus Ad3-hTERT-E1A. In mice, Ad3 induced higher amounts of cytokines but less liver damage than Ad5 or Ad5/3. In humans, the only grade 3 adverse reactions were self-limiting cytopenias and generally the safety profile resembled Ad5-based(More)
Oncolytic adenoviruses have been safe in clinical trials but the efficacy has been mostly limited. All published trials have been performed with serotype 5 based viruses. The expression level of the Ad5 receptor CAR may be variable in advanced tumors. In contrast, the Ad3 receptor remains unclear, but is known to be abundantly expressed in most tumors.(More)
Oncolytic adenovirus is an attractive platform for immunotherapy because virus replication is highly immunogenic and not subject to tolerance. Although oncolysis releases tumor epitopes and provides costimulatory danger signals, arming the virus with immunostimulatory molecules can further improve efficacy. CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) induces apoptosis of(More)