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Freight Rates and Productivity Gains in British Tramp Shipping 1869-1950 The standard source for pre-WWII global freight rate trends is the Isserlis index. We think it is time for a new look at his British tramp shipping index, especially given his sources offer vastly more information than Isserlis used. Our new estimates confirm the precipitous decline in(More)
Co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles containing 0.0085, 0.017, 0.0255, 0.034, and 0.085 mol % Co(III) ion dopant were synthesized via sol-gel and dip-coating techniques. The effects of metal ion doping on the transformation of anatase to the rutile phase have been investigated. Several analytical tools, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron(More)
We are grateful for the advice given by Knick Harley, Michael Murray and Kevin O'Rourke, as well as for data from David Hummels. Williamson also acknowledges with pleasure financial support from the National Science Foundation SES-0001362. The views expressed herein are those of the author and not necessarily those of the National Bureau of Economic(More)
The formation of high-quality thin films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is important in many applications ranging from material reinforcement to molecular electronics. Laser ablation, a technique widely used to deposit a variety of inorganic materials, can also be used as a simple and highly versatile method for forming thin polymer films. The data(More)
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