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Freight Rates and Productivity Gains in British Tramp Shipping 1869-1950 The standard source for pre-WWII global freight rate trends is the Isserlis index. We think it is time for a new look at his British tramp shipping index, especially given his sources offer vastly more information than Isserlis used. Our new estimates confirm the precipitous decline in(More)
Co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles containing 0.0085, 0.017, 0.0255, 0.034, and 0.085 mol % Co(III) ion dopant were synthesized via sol-gel and dip-coating techniques. The effects of metal ion doping on the transformation of anatase to the rutile phase have been investigated. Several analytical tools, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron(More)
The formation of high-quality thin films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is important in many applications ranging from material reinforcement to molecular electronics. Laser ablation, a technique widely used to deposit a variety of inorganic materials, can also be used as a simple and highly versatile method for forming thin polymer films. The data(More)
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