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OBJECTIVE To determine the trend in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among tuberculosis patients in Tanzania and estimate what proportion of the increase in notification rates between the surveys was directly attributable to HIV infection. METHODS Consecutive tuberculosis patients were enrolled over 6-month periods in most regions.(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in a national representative sample of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Tanzania according to recommended methodology. DESIGN Cluster survey, with 40 clusters sampled proportional to size, of notified TB patients from all diagnostic centres in the country. RESULTS The survey enrolled(More)
BACKGROUND Several promising new diagnostic methods and algorithms for tuberculosis have been endorsed by WHO. National tuberculosis programmes now face the decision on which methods to implement and where to place them in the diagnostic algorithm. METHODS We used an integrated model to assess the effects of different algorithms of Xpert MTB/RIF and(More)
Table 1: Reporting of smear results Table 2: Score chart for diagnosis of tuberculosis in children Table 3: Severe and less severe extra-pulmonary TB cases Table 4: Mode of action, potency and recommended dose of anti TB drugs Table 5: Dose-bodyweight relation for patients treated with category I treatment regimen Table 6: Dose-bodyweight relation for(More)
Efforts to stimulate technological innovation in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) have resulted in the recent introduction of several novel diagnostic tools. As these products come to market, policy makers must make difficult decisions about which of the available tools to implement. This choice should depend not only on the test characteristics (e.g.,(More)
BACKGROUND When determining eligibility for isoniazid preventive therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, the cutoff value of the tuberculin skin test (TST) is often reduced from an induration of 10 mm in diameter to one of 5 mm in diameter to compensate for loss of sensitivity. The effectiveness of this reduction depends on the(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the magnitude and factors responsible for delay in TB management. DESIGN A cross sectional hospital based survey in Dar es Salaam region, May 2006. RESULTS We interviewed 639 TB patients. A total of 78.4% of patients had good knowledge on TB transmission. Only 35.9% had good knowledge on the symptoms. Patient delay was observed in(More)
SETTING An urban district in Dar es Salaam city with a high tuberculosis (TB) caseload. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of community-based direct observation of treatment (DOT) using guardians and former TB patients compared to hospital-based DOT in an urban setting in Tanzania. DESIGN Unblinded randomised control trial conducted in five sites(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the costs incurred by patients during the intensive and continuation phases of the current 6-month tuberculosis (TB) regimen in Bangladesh and Tanzania, and thus identify potential benefits to patients of a shorter, 4-month treatment regimen. DESIGN The validated Stop TB patient cost questionnaire was adapted and used in interviews(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB-HIV) epidemics remain uncontrolled in many resource-limited regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The scale of these epidemics requires the consideration of innovative bold interventions and 'out-of-the-box' thinking. To this end, a symposium entitled 'Controversies in HIV' was(More)