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BACKGROUND Bundling, which consists of wrapping an infant for prolonged periods in a sheepskin cover after dried cow dung is applied, is a common and apparently unique practice limited to the rural, mountainous regions of Northern Pakistan. The practice is initiated at various ages during the neonatal period. Its potential contribution to neonatal tetanus… (More)
A case-control study was done to elucidate risk factors for neonatal tetanus (NNT) in rural Pakistan; three controls were selected for each of the 69 cases. Factors commonly believed to be associated with NNT, such as the tool used to cut the umbilical cord and the method of preparing the tool, were not confirmed as risk factors. However, applying ghee to… (More)
BACKGROUND Previous case-control studies have paradoxically suggested that circumcisions protect against neonatal tetanus (NNT), but these observations have not been adjusted for differences in the length of survival of cases and controls. METHODS Boy cases (n = 133) and their sex-matched controls (n = 399) were extracted from a population-based study of… (More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies in Pakistan have shown that ghee (clarified butter) is commonly applied to umbilical wounds of neonates, and have documented that such applications are a risk factor for neonatal tetanus (NNT). In-use contamination of ghee with Clostridium tetani has been demonstrated, but mechanisms underlying the risk of ghee have been… (More)
The epidemiology of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated in northwest Pakistan. Results suggested similar patterns of endemicity in both Afghan refugee and Pakistani populations and highlighted risk factors and household clustering of disease.