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A paramyxovirus virus termed Nipah virus has been identified as the etiologic agent of an outbreak of severe encephalitis in people with close contact exposure to pigs in Malaysia and Singapore. The outbreak was first noted in late September 1998 and by mid-June 1999, more than 265 encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, had been reported in Malaysia, and(More)
During the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia, stored cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 84 patients (27 fatal and 57 nonfatal cases) were cultured for the virus. The virus was isolated from 17 fatal cases and 1 nonfatal case. There were significant associations between CSF virus isolation and mortality as well as clinical features(More)
BACKGROUND Between February and April, 1999, an outbreak of viral encephalitis occurred among pig-farmers in Malaysia. We report findings for the first three patients who died. METHODS Samples of tissue were taken at necropsy. Blood and cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) samples taken before death were cultured for viruses, and tested for antibodies to viruses. (More)
BACKGROUND Dengue fever is a virus infection that is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and can cause severe disease especially in children. Dengue fever is a major problem in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We invited dengue experts from around the world to attend meetings to discuss dengue surveillance.(More)
Nipah virus, a member of the paramyxovirus family, was first isolated and identified in 1999 when the virus crossed the species barrier from fruit bats to pigs and then infected humans, inducing an encephalitis with up to 40% mortality. At present there is no prophylaxis for Nipah virus. We investigated the possibility of vaccination and passive transfer of(More)
Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox(More)
Nipah virus, a newly identified paramyxovirus caused a severe outbreak of encephalitis in Malaysia with high fatalities. We report an open-label trial of ribavirin in 140 patients, with 54 patients who were managed prior to the availability of ribavirin or refused treatment as control. There were 45 deaths (32%) in the ribavirin arm; 29 deaths (54%)(More)
We have completely sequenced the genomes of two Nipah virus (NiV) isolates, one from the throat secretion and the other from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the sole surviving encephalitic patient with positive CSF virus isolation in Malaysia. The two genomes have 18246 nucleotides each and differ by only 4 nucleotides. The NiV genome is 12 nucleotides(More)