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Human ESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-conditioned medium (CM) was previously shown to mediate cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through large complexes of 50-100 nm. Here we show that these MSCs secreted 50- to 100-nm particles. These particles could be visualized by electron microscopy and were shown to be phospholipid(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an(More)
Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in treating diseases or repairing damaged tissues through mechanisms thought to be mediated by either cell replacement or secretion of paracrine factors. Characterized, self-renewing human ESCs could potentially be an invariable source of consistently uniform MSCs for(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an important source of stem cells in regenerative medicine, and much remains unknown about their molecular characteristics. To develop a detailed genomic profile of ESC lines in two different species, we compared transcriptomes of one murine and two different hESC lines by massively parallel signature sequencing(More)
Although paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suggested previously, cardioprotection by human MSC secretions has never been demonstrated. Human MSC-conditioned medium (CM) was collected by following a clinically compliant protocol. In a porcine model of ischemia and reperfusion injury, intravenous and intracoronary MSC-CM treatment(More)
A major problem in gene therapy and tissue replacement is accessibility of tissue-specific stem cells. One solution is to isolate tissue-specific stem cells from differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we show that liver progenitor cells can be purified from differentiated ES cells using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as a marker. By knocking the green(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released by different cell types and participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes. EVs mediate intercellular communication as cell-derived extracellular signalling organelles that transmit specific information from their cell of origin to their target cells. As a result(More)
Intercellular exchange of protein and RNA-containing microparticles is an increasingly important mode of cell-cell communication. Here we investigate if mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) known for secreting therapeutic paracrine factors also secrete RNA-containing microparticles. We observed that human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived MSC conditioned medium(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation plays an important role in atherogenesis. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharides and also recognizes cellular fibronectin and heat shock protein 60, endogenous peptides that are produced in response to tissue injury. To explore a possible role for this receptor in arterial obstructive(More)
We have previously identified exosomes as the paracrine factor secreted by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, we found that the key features of reperfusion injury, namely loss of ATP/NADH, increased oxidative stress and cell death were underpinned by proteomic deficiencies in ischemic/reperfused myocardium, and could be ameliorated by proteins in exosomes.(More)