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Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs) during fast synaptic transmission is mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex assembly formed by the coil-coiling of three members of this protein family: vesicle SNARE protein, synaptobrevin 2 (syb2), and the presynaptic membrane SNAREs syntaxin-1A and SNAP-25.(More)
Exocytosis of neurosecretory vesicles is mediated by the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins syntaxin-1, synaptobrevin and SNAP-25, with synaptotagmin functioning as the major Ca(2+) sensor for triggering membrane fusion. Here we show that bovine chromaffin granules readily fuse with large unilamellar(More)
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are essential organelles that participate in the release of neurotransmitters from a neuron. Biochemical analysis of purified SVs was instrumental in the identification of proteins involved in exocytotic membrane fusion and neurotransmitter uptake. Although numerous protocols have been published detailing the isolation of SVs from(More)
With remarkably few exceptions, the molecules mediating synaptic vesicle exocytosis at active zones are structurally and functionally conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. Mover was found in a yeast-2-hybrid assay using the vertebrate-specific active zone scaffolding protein bassoon as a bait. Peptides of Mover have been reported in proteomics(More)
The synaptotagmins (syts) are a family of molecules that regulate membrane fusion. There are 17 mammalian syt isoforms, most of which are expressed in the brain. However, little is known regarding the subcellular location and function of the majority of these syts in neurons, largely due to a lack of isoform-specific antibodies. Here we generated(More)
Synaptic degeneration is one of the earliest hallmarks of Alzheimer disease. The molecular mechanism underlying this degeneration is not fully elucidated but one key player appears to be the synaptotoxic amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). The exact localization of the production of Aβ and the mechanisms whereby Aβ is released remain elusive. We have earlier shown that(More)
Mover, a member of the exquisitely small group of vertebrate-specific presynaptic proteins, has been discovered as an interaction partner of the scaffolding protein Bassoon, yet its function has not been elucidated. We used adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated shRNA expression to knock down Mover in the calyx of Held in vivo. Although spontaneous synaptic(More)
Neurotransmitter release at neuronal synapses occurs on a timescale of 1 ms or less. Reconstitution of vesicle fusion from purified synaptic proteins and lipids has played a major role in elucidating the synaptic exocytotic fusion machinery with ever increasing detail. However, one limitation of most reconstitution approaches has been the relatively slow(More)
Synaptic degeneration and accumulation of the neurotoxic amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain are hallmarks of Alzheimer disease. Aβ is produced by sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), by the β-secretase β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase. However, Aβ generation is precluded if APP is cleaved by the α-secretase ADAM10(More)
Information storage in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons is compartmentalized in proximal vs. distal apical dendrites, cell bodies, and basal dendrites. This compartmentalization is thought to be essential for synaptic integration. Differences in the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in each of these compartments have been described, but less is(More)