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Numerous bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide potently induce type I interferons (IFNs); however, the contribution of this innate response to host defense against bacterial infection remains unclear. Although mice deficient in either IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 or the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)1 are highly susceptible to viral infection, we show(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and phagocytosis are hallmarks of macrophage-mediated innate immune responses to bacterial infection. However, the relationship between these two processes is not well established. Our data indicate that TLR ligands specifically promote bacterial phagocytosis, in both murine and human cells, through induction of a(More)
HLA-B alleles are associated with viral control in chronic HIV-1 infection, however, their role in primary HIV-1 disease is unclear. This study sought to determine the role of HLA-B alleles in viral control during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection and establishment of the early viral load set point (VLSP). Individuals identified during primary HIV-1(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, the risk of rabies transmission to humans in most situations of possible exposure is unknown. Controlled studies on rabies are clearly not possible. Thus, the limited data on risk has led to the frequent administration of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), often in inappropriate circumstances. METHODS We used the(More)
depar depar depar depar department of health and human ser tment of health and human ser tment of health and human ser tment of health and human ser tment of health and human services vices vices vices vices Disclosure of Relationship CDC, our planners, and our presenters wish to disclose they have no financial interests or other relationships with the(More)
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