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The majority of breast cancers are oestrogen dependent and in postmenopausal women the supply of oestrogens in breast tissue is derived from the peripheral conversion of circulating androgens. There is, however, a paradox concerning the epidemiology of breast cancer and the dietary intake of phytoestrogens that bind weakly to oestrogen receptors and(More)
There is evidence that certain phytoestrogens inhibit aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgens to oestrogens. Kinetic studies in cell-free preparations show that they may inhibit aromatase by competitive binding to the enzyme, but there is a paucity of studies investigating longer-term effects of phytoestrogens on the expression of steroidogenic(More)
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are typically identified as compounds that can interact with oestrogen or androgen receptors and thus act as agonists or antagonists of endogenous hormones. Growing evidence shows that they may also modulate the activity/expression of steroidogenic enzymes. These are expressed not only in the adrenal glands and gonads(More)
Although neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinaemia is a common cause of amenorrhoea in women, the mechanism by which ovarian function is disturbed is unknown. Previous studies on both hyperprolactinaemic women and rats have indicated that an impairment of the pituitary response to LH-RH may be involved. We have investigated this possibility in female(More)
The relationship between hormone levels, plasma catecholamines, and mood disturbances has been investigated in 44 patients during days 2 to 5 of the immediate post-partum period. Fifty-two per cent of the mothers showed periods of emotional lability although there was no significant correlation between plasma concentrations of FSH, prolactin, oestrone,(More)
Phytoestrogens are used as 'natural' alternatives to HRT and, although epidemiological evidence implies that diets rich in phytoestrogens reduce the incidence of breast cancer, their weak oestrogenicity is also known to stimulate growth in experimental models of breast cancer. This review addresses the question as to how phytoestrogens may protect against(More)
There is evidence that certain phytoestrogens can inhibit key steroidogenic enzymes although most studies have been carried out on microsomal or purified enzyme preparations, some using cell lines. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that low doses of phytoestrogens, at concentrations that would be attained through the diet, could inhibit(More)
Changes in pituitary responses to pulses of LH releasing hormone (LH-RH) after ovariectomy in the rat have been investigated with an in-vitro perifusion system. On the third day after ovariectomy there was a large increase in the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to LH-RH compared with days 1 and 2 and this preceded the first significant rise in(More)
Extracts of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and soy are used as 'natural' alternatives to conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and there is some evidence that soy may protect against breast cancer by inhibiting the production of active oestrogens. This study compares the action of ethanolic extracts of black cohosh (BCE) and genistein on growth and(More)