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Spin-torque-transfer (STT) magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) [1-3], a successor to field-induced magnetic switching MRAM [4,5], is an emerging non-volatile memory technology that is CMOS-compatible, scalable, and allows for high-speed access. However, two circuit-level challenges remain for STT-MRAM: potentially destructive read access due to(More)
Clock gating is a power reduction technique that has been used successfully in the custom ASIC domain. Clock and logic signal power are saved by temporarily disabling the clock signal on registers whose outputs do not affect circuit outputs. We consider and evaluate FPGA clock network architectures with built-in clock gating capability and describe a(More)
Hardened adder and carry logic is widely used in commercial FPGAs to improve the efficiency of arithmetic functions. There are many design choices and complexities associated with such hardening, including circuit design, FPGA architectural choices, and the CAD flow. There has been very little study, however, on these choices and hence we explore a number(More)
Anisotropy (PPA) versions of the proposed device. Simulation results confirm that the proposed device offers disturbance-free read operation while still offering significant performance advantages over the conventional 1T1MTJ cell in terms of average access time. The proposed cell also shows superior performance to the 2T2MTJ cell, particularly when the(More)
—Accurate modeling of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is critical for design of memories such as spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) and spin logic circuits such as spin flip flops. This paper reviews several static and dynamic models for the MTJ and compares them for their capabilities and limitations. Furthermore, a(More)
2014 As technology scaling, human creativity, and other factors open new markets for FPGAs, the ar-chitectures of such chips must continue to evolve to meet changing demands. However, public domain software tools available to explore future FPGA architectures have not kept pace with advances in the field. Furthermore, these tools often have strong(More)
We propose a technique to reduce the effective parasitic capacitance of interconnect routing conductors in a bid to simultaneously reduce power consumption and improve delay. The parasitic capacitance reduction is achieved by ensuring routing conductors adjacent to those used by timing critical or high activity nets are left floating - disconnected from(More)
We propose charge recycling (CR) to reduce power consumption in FPGAs. We take advantage of the property that many routing conductors are left unused in any FPGA implementation of an application. Charge recycling via the unused conductors reduces the amount of charge drawn from the supply, lowering energy consumption. We present a routing switch that(More)
Power has become a primary consideration during hardware design. Dynamic power can contribute up to 50% of the total power dissipation. Clock-gating is the most common RTL optimization for reducing dynamic power. By applying Effective clock-gating technique on RISC processor adds additional logic to the existing synchronous circuit to prune the clock tree,(More)