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Spin-torque-transfer (STT) magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) [1-3], a successor to field-induced magnetic switching MRAM [4,5], is an emerging non-volatile memory technology that is CMOS-compatible, scalable, and allows for high-speed access. However, two circuit-level challenges remain for STT-MRAM: potentially destructive read access due to(More)
Clock gating is a power reduction technique that has been used successfully in the custom ASIC domain. Clock and logic signal power are saved by temporarily disabling the clock signal on registers whose outputs do not affect circuit outputs. We consider and evaluate FPGA clock network architectures with built-in clock gating capability and describe a(More)
—Hardened adder and carry logic is widely used in commercial FPGAs to improve the efficiency of arithmetic functions. There are many design choices and complexities associated with such hardening, including circuit design, FPGA architectural choices, and the CAD flow. There has been very little study, however, on these choices and hence we explore a number(More)
We propose a technique to reduce the effective parasitic capacitance of interconnect routing conductors in a bid to simultaneously reduce power consumption and improve delay. The parasitic capacitance reduction is achieved by ensuring routing conductors adjacent to those used by timing critical or high activity nets are left floating - disconnected from(More)
We propose charge recycling (CR) to reduce power consumption in FPGAs. We take advantage of the property that many routing conductors are left unused in any FPGA implementation of an application. Charge recycling via the unused conductors reduces the amount of charge drawn from the supply, lowering energy consumption. We present a routing switch that(More)
—Accurate modeling of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is critical for design of memories such as spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) and spin logic circuits such as spin flip flops. This paper reviews several static and dynamic models for the MTJ and compares them for their capabilities and limitations. Furthermore, a(More)
We target power dissipation in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) interconnect and present three approaches that leverage a unique property of FPGAs, namely, the presence of unused routing conductors. A first technique attacks dynamic power by placing unused conductors, adjacent to used conductors, into a high-impedance state, reducing the effective(More)
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