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This article assembles pertinent insights behind the concept of planarizable push-pull probes. As a response to the planarization of their polarized ground state, a red shift of their excitation maximum is expected to report on either the disorder, the tension, or the potential of biomembranes. The combination of chromophore planarization and polarization… (More)
Monomers with large surface area and high quantum yield, that is fluorescent flippers, have been engineered into twisted push-pull oligomers to create membrane probes with high mechanosensitivity and long fluorescence lifetime. Here, the synthesis and characterization of thieno[3,4]pyrazines and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazoles are described in comparison with the… (More)
Attached to electron-rich aromatic systems, sulfides are very weak acceptors; however, attached to electron-poor aromatics, they turn into quite strong donors. Here, we show that this underappreciated dual nature of sulfides deserves full consideration for the design of functional systems. Tested with newly designed and synthesized planarizable push-pull… (More)
The development of synthetic methods to build complex functional systems is a central and current challenge in organic chemistry. This goal is important because supramolecular architectures of highest sophistication account for function in nature, and synthetic organic chemistry, contrary to high standards with small molecules, fails to deliver functional… (More)
Systematic headgroup engineering yields planarizable push-pull flipper probes that are ready for use in biology - stable, accessible, modifiable -, and affords non-trivial insights into chalcogen-bond mediated mechanophore degradation and fluorescence enhancement.