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Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), occurring in many neurological diseases, has been difficult to measure noninvasively in humans. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging measures BBB permeability. However, important technical challenges remain and normative data from healthy humans is lacking. We report the implementation of a method(More)
Variations in apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability after ischemia have been suggested, though the correlation between ADC alterations and BBB opening remains to be studied. We hypothesized that there are correlations between the alteration of ADC and BBB permeability. Rats were subjected to 2 h of(More)
Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in neurological disorders. Neuroinflammation is associated with increased BBB breakdown and brain injury. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is involved in BBB injury and edema formation through a mechanism involving matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) up-regulation. There is emerging evidence(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of cellular adaptation to hypoxia and has been suggested as a potent therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia. Here we show in an ischemic stroke model of rats that inhibiting HIF-1 and its downstream genes by 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) significantly increases mortality and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) is a major form of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) due to small vessel disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are neutral proteases that disrupt the blood-brain barrier and degrade myelin basic protein under conditions of neuroinflammation. Brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)(More)
Stroke is a leading cause of adult morbidity and mortality with very limited treatment options. Evidence from preclinical models of ischemic stroke has demonstrated that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively protects the brain from ischemic injury. Here, we evaluated a new pathway through which NAC exerted its neuroprotection in a transient(More)
BACKGROUND White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) but fail to correlate with neuropsychological measures. As proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can identify ischaemic tissue, we hypothesised that MRS detectable brain metabolites would be superior to WMHs in predicting performance on neuropsychological(More)
Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in neurological disorders. Neuroinflammation is associated with increased BBB breakdown and brain injury. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-␣ is involved in BBB injury and edema formation through a mechanism involving matrix metallopro-teinase (MMP) up-regulation. There is emerging evidence(More)
The hypocretins (1 and 2) have emerged as key regulators of sleep and wakefulness. We developed a high-throughput enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure total brain hypocretin levels from large numbers of mice. Hypocretin levels were not altered by circadian time or age. However, significant differences in one or both hypocretin peptides were observed between(More)
Chemokines, a subclass of cytokine superfamily have both pro-inflammatory and migratory role and serve as chemoattractant of immune cells during the inflammatory responses ensuing spinal cord injury (SCI). The chemokines, especially CXCL-1, CXCL-9, CXCL-10 and CXCL-12 contribute significant part in the inflammatory secondary damage of SCI. Inhibiting(More)