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Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), occurring in many neurological diseases, has been difficult to measure noninvasively in humans. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging measures BBB permeability. However, important technical challenges remain and normative data from healthy humans is lacking. We report the implementation of a method(More)
Variations in apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability after ischemia have been suggested, though the correlation between ADC alterations and BBB opening remains to be studied. We hypothesized that there are correlations between the alteration of ADC and BBB permeability. Rats were subjected to 2 h of(More)
Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in neurological disorders. Neuroinflammation is associated with increased BBB breakdown and brain injury. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is involved in BBB injury and edema formation through a mechanism involving matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) up-regulation. There is emerging evidence(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of cellular adaptation to hypoxia and has been suggested as a potent therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia. Here we show in an ischemic stroke model of rats that inhibiting HIF-1 and its downstream genes by 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) significantly increases mortality and(More)
BACKGROUND White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) but fail to correlate with neuropsychological measures. As proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can identify ischaemic tissue, we hypothesised that MRS detectable brain metabolites would be superior to WMHs in predicting performance on neuropsychological(More)
The hypocretins (1 and 2) have emerged as key regulators of sleep and wakefulness. We developed a high-throughput enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure total brain hypocretin levels from large numbers of mice. Hypocretin levels were not altered by circadian time or age. However, significant differences in one or both hypocretin peptides were observed between(More)
Chemokines, a subclass of cytokine superfamily have both pro-inflammatory and migratory role and serve as chemoattractant of immune cells during the inflammatory responses ensuing spinal cord injury (SCI). The chemokines, especially CXCL-1, CXCL-9, CXCL-10 and CXCL-12 contribute significant part in the inflammatory secondary damage of SCI. Inhibiting(More)
The locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic system regulates arousal and modulates attention through its extensive projections across the brain. LC dysfunction has been implicated in a broad range of neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, as well as in the cognitive changes observed during normal aging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)(More)
CSF hypocretin-1 was measured in 28 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), 12 Miller-Fisher syndrome, 12 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and 48 control subjects. Seven GBS subjects had undetectably low hypocretin-1 levels (<100 pg/mL). Hypocretin-1 levels were moderately reduced in an additional 11 GBS, 5 Miller-Fisher syndrome, and 1 CIDP(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption visualized in lesions by MRI is a major biomarker of disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, in MS, destruction occurs to a variable extent in lesions as well as in gray matter (GM) and in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM). A method to quantify the BBB disruption in lesions as well as in non-lesion(More)