Learn More
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of leukemia in adults and is characterized by a clonal accumulation of mature apoptosis-resistant neoplastic cells. It is also a heterogeneous disease with a variable clinical outcome. Here, we present a review of currently known (epi)genetic alterations that are related to the etiology, progression(More)
Metastasis is a multistep process, which refers to the ability to leave a primary tumor through circulation toward the distant tissue and form a secondary tumor. Bone is a common site of metastasis, in which osteolytic and osteoblastic metastasis are observed. Signaling pathways, chemokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules, and cellular interactions as(More)
BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase with a regulatory role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. A mutation in the RAF gene, especially in BRAF protein, leads to an increased stimulation of this cascade, causing uncontrolled cell division and development of malignancy. Several mutations have been observed in the gene coding for(More)
The bone marrow (BM) niche is a specific physiological environment for hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Several signaling pathways (including Wnt/β-catenin) regulate various aspects of stem cell growth, function and death in the BM niche. In addition, the canonical Wnt pathway is crucial for directing self-renewal and differentiation(More)
Hematoproliferative neoplasias like chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) progressively affect bone marrow niche; however, there are only few specific clinical markers for prediction of disease progression. Here, we review the myeloproliferative niche and molecular changes including signaling pathways as well as microRNA (miRNA) in CML in order to better(More)
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a progressive cancer which mainly occurs in children, and which is caused by different genetic or epigenetic alterations that lead to inactivation of both alleles of the RB1 gene. Hereditary and non-hereditary forms of Rb do exist, and the hereditary form is associated with an increased risk of secondary malignancies. Metastasis to(More)
After advances in experimental and clinical testing, minimal residual disease (MRD) assay results are considered a determining factor in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. According to MRD assay results, bone marrow (BM) leukemic burden and the rate of its decline after treatment can be directly evaluated. Detailed knowledge of the leukemic(More)
Twist proteins are members of basic helix-loop-helix family and are major regulators of embryogenesis. In adult humans, Twist proteins are mainly expressed in precursor cells, including myogenic, osteoblastic, chondroblastic and myelomonocytic lineages, maintaining their undifferentiated state. In addition, they play important roles in lymphocyte function(More)
Tumor cells are able to attract mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to primary tumor site. On the other hand, MSCs secrete various factors to attract tumor cells towards BM. In this review, in addition to assessment of MSCs function at tumor sites and their impact on growth and metastasis of tumor cells, the importance of MSC in attraction of malignant cells to(More)
Platelet factor-4 (CXCL4/PF-4) is a member of CXC-chemokine family produced by megakaryocytic lineage and stored in platelet α-granules. Platelet stimulation by aggregating agents such as thrombin and ADP leads to CXCL4 secretion. CXCL4 plays several roles in coagulation, angiogenesis control, immune system modulation and spread of cancer. Megakaryocytes(More)