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A physiological dose of orally administered melatonin shifts circadian rhythms in humans according to a phase-response curve (PRC) that is nearly opposite in phase with the PRCs for light exposure: melatonin delays circadian rhythms when administered in the morning and advances them when administered in the afternoon or early evening. The human melatonin(More)
BACKGROUND According to the phase-shift hypothesis for winter depression, morning light (which causes a circadian phase advance) should be more antidepressant than evening light (which causes a delay). Although no studies have shown evening light to be more antidepressant than morning light, investigations have shown either no difference or morning light to(More)
CONTEXT No large-scale posttraumatic stress disorder drug trials have been conducted to evaluate treatment effects beyond 12 weeks outside of those with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of venlafaxine extended release (ER), a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in posttraumatic stress disorder. DESIGN(More)
The present study, examines some issues in the measure and analysis of behavior in animals. Two strains of rats of both genders were used to illustrate and discuss these issues. We examined to what extent various behavioral measures reflect different or identical emotional or cognitive factors and, how sensitive are the various parameters of a task to(More)
INTRODUCTION Loss to follow-up is a major challenge in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme in Malawi with reported loss to follow-up of greater than 70%. Tingathe-PMTCT is a pilot intervention that utilizes dedicated community health workers (CHWs) to create a complete continuum of care within the PMTCT cascade, improving(More)
OBJECTIVES To test the long-term efficacy and safety of venlafaxine extended-release (ER) in preventing recurrence in patients with major depression. METHOD This multiple-phase study, entitled "Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression With Venlafaxine for Two Years" (PREVENT), was conducted from December 2000 through July 2005 in patients with(More)
The family of 5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors belongs to the superfamily of G protein coupled neurotransmitter receptors that serve in part as regulators of synaptic function. Muscarinic receptors are anatomically positioned in cortical and subcortical areas and modulate dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission thought to be dysfunctional in(More)
Melatonin is produced only during nighttime darkness. Its onset during the evening is a useful marker for circadian phase position, when melatonin levels are sampled frequently and under conditions of dim light or darkness. This marker is termed the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Recently, we have described a phase response curve (PRC) to melatonin in(More)
OBJECTIVE In 2011, Malawi implemented Option B+ (B+), lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women. We aimed to describe changes in service uptake and outcomes along the antenatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade post-B+ implementation. DESIGN Pre/post study using routinely collected program data(More)
BACKGROUND The Tingathe program utilizes community health workers to improve prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service delivery. We evaluated the impact of antiretroviral (ARV) regimen and maternal CD4+ count on HIV transmission within the Tingathe program in Lilongwe, Malawi. METHODS We reviewed clinical records of 1088 mother-infant(More)