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Parametric kernel methods currently dominate the literature regarding the construction of animal home ranges (HRs) and utilization distributions (UDs). These methods frequently fail to capture the kinds of hard boundaries common to many natural systems. Recently a local convex hull (LoCoH) nonparametric kernel method, which generalizes the minimum convex(More)
The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of(More)
Vibrio cholerae is a globally distributed water-borne pathogen that causes severe diarrheal disease and mortality, with current outbreaks as part of the seventh pandemic. Further understanding of the role of environmental factors in potential pathogen distribution and corresponding V. cholerae disease transmission over time and space is urgently needed to(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is now the fastest spreading tropical disease globally. Previous studies indicate that climate and human behavior interact to influence dengue virus and vector (Aedes aegypti) population dynamics; however, the relative effects of these variables depends on local ecology and social context. We(More)
OBJECTIVE Kenya is heralded as an example of declining HIV in Africa, while its tuberculosis (TB) numbers continue rising. We conducted a comparative investigation of TB-HIV co-dynamics in Africa to determine the likelihood of reported trends. METHODS AND RESULTS Our mathematical modeling analysis exposes the notable incongruence of reported trends in(More)
Infectious disease has recently joined poaching and habitat loss as a major threat to African apes. Both "naturally" occurring pathogens, such as Ebola and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), and respiratory pathogens transmitted from humans, have been confirmed as important sources of mortality in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. While awareness of the(More)
Recent developments of automated methods for monitoring animal movement, e.g., global positioning systems (GPS) technology, yield high-resolution spatiotemporal data. To gain insights into the processes creating movement patterns, we present two new techniques for extracting information from these data on repeated visits to a particular site or patch(More)
  • S J Ryan
  • 1975
There are very few eyes with the ocular histoplasmosis syndrome that have been studied as such by the ophthalmic pathologist. Hoefnagels and Pijpers [6] were the first to demonstrate H. capsulatum in the human eye. However, this was a case of endophthalmitis and not the clinically observe syndrome. Klintworth et. al. [7] demonstrated the organism(More)
While the population of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) has grown from 15 individuals in 1941 to an estimated 304 birds today, the population growth is not sufficient to support a down-listing of the species to threatened status. The degree to which disease may be limiting the population growth of whooping cranes is unknown. One disease of(More)