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Since the first reported outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan, several mini outbreaks have erupted in the region. Dengue virus serotype 3 (DEN-3) was first documented in 2005 outbreak in Karachi. Reports show that serotype 3 is prevalent in Lahore since 2008. Serotype 2 (DEN-2) is the major circulating serotype in Pakistan as it is documented(More)
The continuously mutating nature of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for the emergence of varying genotypes in different regions of the world affecting the disease outcome. The objective of the current study was to find out the pattern of HBV genotypes circulating in Pakistan. HBV genotypes were determined in HBV chronic patients of different age and(More)
AIM To assess the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Pakistan, and the genotype distribution among these HCC patients. METHODS One hundred and sixty-one subjects with HCC were included in this study. Liver biopsy was performed on 145 of the patients; sixteen were excluded because they failed(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of liver disease throughout the world, is difficult to treat with interferon (IFN) (and various formulations and combinations thereof) being the only approved molecule available. It has been investigated recently that proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) induced by HCV partially inhibits the antiviral IFN-α(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of HCV RNA in the liver biopsies of patients with abnormal liver tests but without detectable serum HCV RNA and anti-HCV antibodies in sera. Liver biopsies and whole blood of total 31 patients who were negative for anti-HCV antibodies with elevated liver function tests were received at Division of(More)
Information regarding the changing pattern in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes/subtypes and resulting disease outcome is not well known. The specific objective of this study was to find out the frequency distribution of HCV genotypes and changing pattern of various HCV genotypes overtime in well-characterized Pakistani HCV isolates. The genotype(More)
Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) is an uncommon but distinct variant of aplastic anemia in which pancytopenia appears two to three months after an acute attack of hepatitis. HAAA occurs most frequently in young male children and is lethal if leave untreated. The etiology of this syndrome is proposed to be attributed to various hepatitis and non(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Chronic HCV infection results in progressive liver disease including fibrosis, cirrhosis, insulin resistance and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ionotrophic purinergic (P2X) receptors are identified to involve in a spectrum of physiological and(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a member of Flaviviridae family and one of the major causes of liver disease. There are about 175 million HCV infected patients worldwide that constitute 3% of world's population. The main route of HCV transmission is parental however 90% intravenous drug users are at highest risk. Standard interferon and ribavirin remained a gold(More)
Current standard therapy commonly followed for chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Pakistan is interferon alpha plus ribavirin combination therapy (IFN α/ribavirin) and pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PegIFN/ribavirin). PegIFN/ribavirin has increased rate of sustained virological response than standard IFN α/ribavirin therapy. Objective of current study(More)