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BACKGROUND Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dry skin and a hyperactive immune response to allergens, 2 cardinal features that are caused in part by epidermal barrier defects. Tight junctions (TJs) reside immediately below the stratum corneum and regulate the selective permeability of the paracellular pathway. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the(More)
Colonic K+ secretion stimulated by cholinergic agents requires activation of muscarinic receptors and the release of intracellular Ca2+. However, the precise mechanisms by which this rise in Ca2+ leads to K+ efflux across the apical membrane are poorly understood. In the present study, Northern blot analysis of rat proximal colon revealed the presence of(More)
PURPOSE Acute gastrointestinal syndrome (AGS) resulting from ionizing radiation causes death within 7 days. Currently, no satisfactory agent exists for mitigation of AGS. A peptide derived from the receptor binding domain of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-P) was synthesized and its mitigation effect on AGS was examined. METHODS AND MATERIALS A subtotal(More)
PURPOSE To determine the plasma concentrations of acute responding cytokines/chemokines following 9-Gy ionizing radiation in C57BL/6 (radiation tolerant) and C3H/HeN (radiation sensitive) murine strains. METHODS AND MATERIALS Mice (5/group) received 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and the plasma from each mouse was collected at 6h or 1, 2, 4, or 10(More)
Luminal isobutyrate, a relatively poor metabolized short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), induces HCO(3) secretion via a Cl-independent, DIDS-insensitive, carrier-mediated process as well as inhibiting both Cl-dependent and cAMP-induced HCO(3) secretion. The mechanism(s) responsible for these processes have not been well characterized. HCO(3) secretion was measured(More)
The effects of fibroblast growth factors and their potential as broad-spectrum agents to treat and mitigate radiation injury have been studied extensively over the past two decades. This report shows that a peptide mimetic of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-P) protects and mitigates against acute radiation syndromes. FGF-P attenuates both sepsis and(More)
The diversity of nanomaterials in terms of size, shape, and surface chemistry poses a challenge to those who are trying to characterize the human health and environmental risks associated with incidental and unintentional exposures. There are numerous products that are already commercially available that contain solid metal and metal oxide nanoparticles,(More)
BACKGROUND The intestine is highly susceptible to free radical-induced damage, and our earlier work has shown that surgical stress induces the generation of oxygen free radicals in enterocytes, resulting in intestinal damage along with ultrastructural changes. Since nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of gastrointestinal function, this study looked(More)
The sodium-coupled glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1)-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) used in the management of acute diarrhea does not substantially reduce stool output, despite the fact that glucose stimulates the absorption of sodium and water. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the possibility that glucose might also stimulate anion secretion.(More)
We developed a simple, rapid and quantitative assay using the fluorescent probe PicoGreen to measure the concentration of ionizing radiation-induced double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in mouse plasma, and we correlated this concentration with the radiation dose. With 70 μl of blood obtained by fingerstick, this 30 min assay reduces protein interference without(More)