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Gold and nickel-chromium alloys were used as substrates for one shade of fused porcelain. Chroma characteristics were compared between samples with opaque thicknesses of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mm. Thicknesses of 0.1 to 0.5 mm of dentin porcelain fused on each of the thicknesses of opaque porcelain were measured. Perceptible color differences were found for most(More)
Multiscale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations with the real ion-to-electron mass ratio and β value are realized for the first time, where the β value is given by the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure and characterizes electromagnetic effects on microinstabilities. Numerical analysis at both the electron scale and the ion scale is used to reveal(More)
The metals for porcelain fusing used in this study were gold alloys and nickel-chromium alloys. Chromatic characteristics were compared between samples of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm thickness. The dentin porcelain was fused on the opaque surface. Chromatic analyses were then carried out at each stage of 0.1 mm-incremental reductions of the dentin thickness(More)
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