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The effect of recombinant human interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta) on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mossy fiber-CA3 pathway of mouse hippocampal slice preparations was investigated. IL-1 beta significantly inhibited LTP in concentrations as low as 2.9 pM (50 pg/ml). This effect of IL-1 beta was blocked by concurrent application of 100 nM Lys-D-Pro-Thr, a(More)
We recorded the activity of midbrain dopamine neurons in an instrumental conditioning task in which monkeys made a series of behavioral decisions on the basis of distinct reward expectations. Dopamine neurons responded to the first visual cue that appeared in each trial [conditioned stimulus (CS)] through which monkeys initiated trial for decision while(More)
Regional activation of the brain was studied in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging during whole body cooling that produced thermal comfort/discomfort. Eight normal male subjects lay in a sleeping bag through which air was blown, exposing subjects to cold air (8 degrees C) for 22 min. Each subject scored their degree of thermal comfort and(More)
The effects of systemic administration of kainic acid and pentylenetetrazol on interleukin-1 beta gene expression in the rat brain was studied. After the administration of kainic acid in a convulsive dose (10 mg/kg i.p.), Interleukin-1 beta mRNA was induced intensely in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and hypothalamus, moderately in the hippocampus and weakly(More)
Midbrain dopamine neurons signal reward value, their prediction error, and the salience of events. If they play a critical role in achieving specific distant goals, long-term future rewards should also be encoded as suggested in reinforcement learning theories. Here, we address this experimentally untested issue. We recorded 185 dopamine neurons in three(More)
The body temperature of homeothermic animals is regulated by systems that utilize multiple behavioral and autonomic effector responses. In the last few years, new approaches have brought us new information and new ideas about neuronal interconnections in the thermoregulatory network. Studies utilizing chemical stimulation of the preoptic area revealed both(More)
Four human T cell lines, TL-Mor, TL-Su, TL-TerI, and TL-OmI, carrying human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV), were established previously. TL-Mor, TL-Su, and TL-TerI were derived from interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent parental cell lines cloned from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of three healthy HTLV carriers, while TL-OmI was directly established from PBL of(More)
Using in vivo electrophysiological techniques and continuous local infusion methods, we examined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its specific antibody (anti-BDNF) on the noradrenergic axon terminals of the locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in the frontal cortex of aging rats. Recently, we observed that LC neurons with(More)
In the frontal cortex of aging rats, we found an increase in sprouting of the noradrenergic (NA) axons originated from the locus coeruleus (LC). The serotonergic (5-HT) axons originating from the dorsal raphe (DR) share the same cortical area and their age-dependent changes and interactions with NA axons were still unclear. To compare quantitatively the(More)
The locus coeruleus (LC), located within the caudal pontine central gray, is composed of noradrenaline-containing neurons. The axons of these neurons form extensive collateral branches that project widely to many brain sites. The function of the LC is still unclear at present, however, LC neurons are known to exhibit marked axonal regeneration and sprouting(More)