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Synthetic porous ceramic made of hydroxyapatite (HA) has been used as a bone graft substitute. In the present study we investigated whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerates bone ingrowth into the pores of HA ceramic. Application of LIPUS did not mechanically weaken porous ceramic that was immersed in water in vitro. In vivo experiments(More)
A brief period of ischemia, i.e. preconditioning of the middle cerebral artery territory, induces ischemic tolerance reducing the cerebral infarction volume caused by subsequent lethal ischemia. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. In the present study, we examined the involvement of the activation of Akt,(More)
Magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) play a fundamental role in cellular function, but the cellular dynamic changes of intracellular Mg(2+) remain poorly delineated. The present study aims to clarify whether the concentration of intracellular Mg(2+) possibly changes cyclically in association with rhythmic contraction and intracellular Ca(2+) oscillation in cultured(More)
The pathological influences of inflammation on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) were studied in subtotal nephrectomized (SNx) rats after 0.3% NaCl loading for 5 weeks. We found that mild hypertension, increased plasma levels of creatinine, inorganic phosphate, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were observed in the present(More)
Glutamate (Glu) is a major excitatory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system and under normal conditions plays an important role in information processing in the brain. Therefore, extracellular Glu is subject to strong homeostasis. Astrocytes in the brain have been considered to be mainly responsible for the clearance of extracellular Glu.(More)
Application of a brief period of ischemia, i.e. preconditioning treatment of the middle cerebral artery territory, has been known to produce ischemic tolerance, reducing cerebral infarction volume in the penumbra region after lethal ischemia. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for preconditioning-induced ischemic tolerance.(More)
Glucose is a necessary source of energy to sustain cell activities and homeostasis in the brain, and enhanced glucose transporter (GLUT) activities are protective of cells during energy depletion including brain ischemia. Here we investigated whether and if so how the astrocytic expression of GLUTs crucial for the uptake of glucose changes in ischemic(More)
To test whether mechanical loading produces faster healing in aged mice, fractured femurs of aged 1-year-old mice were subjected to low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), a treatment that is routinely used to help heal fractures in humans. Cyclooxygenase-2 knockout mice (COX-2(-/-)), which lack an immediate early mediator of mechanical stimulation, were(More)
The opening of pannexin-1 (Px1) hemichannels is regulated by the activity of P2X(7) receptors (P2X(7)Rs). At present, however, little is known about how extracellular ATP-sensitive P2X(7)Rs regulates the opening and closure of Px1 hemichannels. Several lines of evidence suggest that P2X(7)Rs are activated under pathological conditions such as ischemia,(More)
Astrocytes become hypertrophic reactive in response to the ischemic stress, and they contribute to either protect or exacerbate neuronal damage, depending on the depth or duration of the stress. Astrocytes have more resistance to the ischemic stress than neurons, which is apparently due to active anerobic metabolic pathway in the emergency situation. We(More)