Sadaf Badar

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a member of Flaviviridae family and one of the major causes of liver disease. There are about 175 million HCV infected patients worldwide that constitute 3% of world's population. The main route of HCV transmission is parental however 90% intravenous drug users are at highest risk. Standard interferon and ribavirin remained a gold(More)
BACKGROUND Since the first reported outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan, several mini outbreaks have erupted in the region. Dengue virus serotype 3 (DEN-3) was first documented in 2005 outbreak in Karachi. Reports show that serotype 3 is prevalent in Lahore since 2008. Serotype 2 (DEN-2) is the major circulating serotype in Pakistan as it is(More)
Hepatitis C is a major health problem affecting more than 200 million individuals in the world. Current treatment regimen consisting of interferon alpha and ribavirin does not always succeed in eliminating the virus completely from patient's body. One of the mechanisms by which virus evades the antiviral effect of interferon alpha involves protein kinase(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the leading health problem with up to 350 million affected people worldwide including 4.5 million only in Pakistan. It has mortality rate of 0.5 to 1.2 million per year worldwide. Pakistan lies in the endemic region with 3-5% HBV carrier rate in the country. The present article reviews the literature on the treatment(More)
CONTEXT HCV infection is strongly associated with development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, however molecular mechanism of these associations is not known. The aim of this review was to conduct a comprehensive literature search to understand the nature of the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and insulin resistance (IR). We(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus roots a chronic liver disease. Currently approved treatment strategy includes administration of alpha interferon and ribavirin combined therapy for 24-48 weeks. One of the predictor of sustained virological response is an early virological response to treatment characterized as rapid response. Hyper variable region 1 (HVR1) of(More)
HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) transmission has been reduced by protected sex and screening of blood products and other body fluids in the developed countries. It has been reported that Pakistan is at high risk of HIV/AIDS infection but presently the prevalence rate is considerably low. The number of reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan has been(More)
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