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Severe sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States and the most common cause of death among critically ill patients in non-coronary intensive care units (ICU). Respiratory tract infections, particularly pneumonia, are the most common site of infection, and associated with the highest mortality. The type of organism causing severe sepsis is an(More)
Increased antioxidant defences are hypothesised to decrease age- and smoking-related decline in lung function. The relationship between dietary antioxidants, smoking and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) was investigated in community-dwelling older adults in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. 1,443 participants completed a food frequency(More)
BACKGROUND Although diabetes mellitus is implicated in susceptibility to infection, the association of diabetes with the subsequent course and outcome is unclear. METHODS A retrospective analysis of two multicentre cohorts was carried out. The effect of pre-existing diabetes on the host immune response, acute organ function and mortality in patients(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To evaluate causes of failure to be extubated (FTE) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING Cardiovascular surgical ICU. PATIENTS Four hundred patients undergoing CABG surgery. Following surgery, patients were extubated by a standardized respiratory protocol and were assessed(More)
BACKGROUND Little evidence on the validity of simple and widely applicable tools to predict mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists. OBJECTIVE To conduct a large international study to validate the ADO index that uses age, dyspnoea and FEV(1) to predict 3-year mortality and to update it in order to make prediction of(More)
BACKGROUND Acceleration of chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease, may increase long-term mortality after community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Persistence of the prothrombotic state that occurs during an acute infection may increase risk of subsequent atherothrombosis in patients with pre-existing(More)
INTRODUCTION Sepsis and other infections are associated with late cardiovascular events. Although persistent inflammation is implicated, a causal relationship has not been established. We tested whether sepsis causes vascular inflammation and accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS We performed prospective, randomized animal studies at a university research(More)
BACKGROUND Recent observational studies suggest that bleeding from stress ulceration is extremely uncommon in intensive care unit patients. Furthermore, the risk of bleeding may not be altered by the use of acid suppressive therapy. Early enteral tube feeding (initiated within 48 h of intensive care unit admission) may account for this observation. Stress(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether inflammatory and hemostasis response in patients hospitalized for pneumonia varies by age and whether these differences explain higher mortality in the elderly. METHODS In an observational cohort of subjects with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) recruited from emergency departments (ED) in 28 hospitals, we divided subjects(More)
A metabolomics approach for prediction of bacteremic sepsis in patients in the emergency room (ER) was investigated. In a prospective study, whole blood samples from 65 patients with bacteremic sepsis and 49 ER controls were compared. The blood samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Multivariate and(More)