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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Toll, a leucine-rich repeat molecule that can trigger innate responses against pathogens. The TLR4 gene has recently been shown to be mutated in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, both of which are low responders to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TLR4 may be a long-sought receptor for LPS. However,(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate recognition molecules for microbial products, but their direct interactions with corresponding ligands remain unclarified. LPS, a membrane constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is the best-studied TLR ligand and is recognized by TLR4 and MD-2, a molecule associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. Although(More)
The susceptibility to infections induced by Gram-negative bacteria is largely determined by innate immune responses to bacteria cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The stimulation of B cells by LPS enhances their antigen-presenting capacity and is accompanied by B cell proliferation and secretion of large quantities of LPS-neutralizing antibodies. Similar(More)
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