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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Toll, a leucine-rich repeat molecule that can trigger innate responses against pathogens. The TLR4 gene has recently been shown to be mutated in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, both of which are low responders to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TLR4 may be a long-sought receptor for LPS. However,(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate recognition molecules for microbial products, but their direct interactions with corresponding ligands remain unclarified. LPS, a membrane constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is the best-studied TLR ligand and is recognized by TLR4 and MD-2, a molecule associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. Although(More)
The susceptibility to infections induced by Gram-negative bacteria is largely determined by innate immune responses to bacteria cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The stimulation of B cells by LPS enhances their antigen-presenting capacity and is accompanied by B cell proliferation and secretion of large quantities of LPS-neutralizing antibodies. Similar(More)
An analog of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 22-oxyacalcitriol (OCT), differentiated human monocytic THP-1 and U937 cells to express membrane CD14 and rendered the cells responsive to bacterial cell surface components. Both THP-1 and U937 cells expressed Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the cell surface and TLR4 mRNA in the cells, irrespective of OCT(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD-2 recognizes lipid A, the active moiety of microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Little is known about mechanisms for LPS recognition by TLR4-MD-2. Here we show ligand-induced TLR4 oligomerization, homotypic interaction of TLR4, which directly leads to TLR4 signaling. Since TLR4 oligomerization normally occurred in the(More)
Gingival fibroblasts produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from periodontopathic bacteria. Recently it has become evident that the human homologue of Drosophila Toll can transduce intracellular signaling by LPS stimulation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified in myeloid cells; however, their role in nonmyeloid(More)
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-primed human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) have been shown to produce higher levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) upon stimulation with bacterial products and inflammatory cytokines than nonprimed controls. In this study, we examined whether priming of HGF with IFN-gamma up-regulates IL-8 production by the cells in response to purified(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from gram-negative black-pigmented bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia activate cells from non-LPS-responsive C3H/HeJ mice, but it is still unclear whether this activity is due to the unique structure of LPS or to a minor component(s) responsible for the activity in the preparation. A(More)
A 55-kDa protein named AILb-A, isolated from the seed extract of Aeginetia indica L., a parasitic plant, induces a Th1-type T-cell response and elicits a marked antitumor effect in tumor-bearing mice. In the present study, we examined the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which have been implicated in pathogen-induced cell signaling, in AILb-A-induced(More)
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