Sachi Kuwahara-Otani

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Microglia are the resident macrophage population of the central nervous system (CNS) and play essential roles, particularly in inflammation-mediated pathological conditions such as ischemic stroke. Increasing evidence shows that the population of vascular cells located around the blood vessels, rather than circulating cells, harbor stem cells and that these(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS In mammalian spermatogenesis, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is one of the major Sertoli cell-derived factors which regulates the maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) through GDNF family receptor α1 (GFRα1). It remains unclear as to when, where and how GDNF molecules(More)
The vagal motor neurons project to the gastrointestinal tract by way of the gastric, celiac and hepatic branches of the vagus trunk. We have examined whether single neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) have collateral projections to the stomach, the duodenum and the intestines using a double-labeling tracing method. Following(More)
We have examined whether calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) neurons in the vagal and glossopharyngeal ganglia innervate the larynx. Many CGRP-ir neurons were located mostly in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex that was fused the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion and the jugular ganglion in the cranial cavity. When(More)
To clarify the origin of efferent nerves containing renal plexus, the retrograde neuronal tracing was utilized with a new exact closed injection system with microcapsules. The microcapsule was positioned in the rat left renal plexus, and the capsule was filled with fluoro-gold. Retrograde labeled cells were observed in the ipsilateral sympathetic trunk,(More)
We have studied the connections of calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) sensory neurons in the ganglia of the vagus nerve. Many CGRP-ir neurons were identified in the jugular ganglion located in the cranial cavity, while fewer CGRP-ir neurons were found in the nodose ganglion located at the level of the jugular foramen. Application of(More)
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important mediator of peripheral inflammation and host immune response. IL-18 functions through its binding with the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R), which consists of two chains, an IL-18-binding α chain (IL-18Rα) and a signaling β chain. IL-18 and IL-18R are expressed in the brain; however, limited(More)
We have determined whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactive (BDNF-ir) neurons in the vagal ganglia innervate the gastrointestinal tract. Many BDNF-ir neurons were medium in size and located throughout the jugular and nodose ganglia. When Fluorogold was injected into the wall of the cervical esophagus, many retrogradely Fluorogold-labeled(More)
The distribution and the ultrastructure of afferent fibers innervating the parietal peritoneum in the rat was studied with immunohistochemistry using an antiserum against the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5. The immunoreactive fibers were distributed throughout the peritoneum. They generally ran straight and parallel to the intercostal nerves(More)
Interleukin 18 (IL-18) participates in the inflammatory immune response of lymphocytes. Delay in learning or memory are common in the IL-18 knockout mouse. Many IL-18-immunoreactive neurons are found in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and the subiculum. These neurons also contain the IL-18 receptor. We determined the location and the ultrastructure of the(More)