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PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence retrotransposons in Drosophila germ lines by associating with the PIWI proteins Argonaute 3 (AGO3), Aubergine (Aub) and Piwi. piRNAs in Drosophila are produced from intergenic repetitive genes and piRNA clusters by two systems: the primary processing pathway and the amplification loop. The amplification loop occurs in(More)
Genetic studies have shown that Aubergine (Aub), one of the Piwi subfamily of Argonautes in Drosophila, is essential for germ cell formation and maintaining fertility. aub mutations lead to the accumulation of retrotransposons in ovaries and testes, and Stellate transcripts in testes. Aub in ovaries associates with a variety of Piwi-interacting RNAs(More)
In Drosophila, the PIWI proteins, Aubergine (Aub), AGO3, and Piwi are expressed in germlines and function in silencing transposons by associating with PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Recent studies show that PIWI proteins contain symmetric dimethyl-arginines (sDMAs) and that dPRMT5/Capsuleen/DART5 is the modifying enzyme. Here, we show that Tudor (Tud), one(More)
One of the most surprising results to emerge from mammalian cDNA sequencing projects is that thousands of mRNA-like non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are expressed and constitute at least 10% of poly(A)(+) RNAs. In most cases, however, the functions of these RNA molecules remain unclear. To clarify the biological significance of mRNA-like ncRNAs, we computationally(More)
Transcriptome analyses in eukaryotes, including mice and humans, have identified polyA-containing transcripts that lack long open reading frames (ORFs; >100 amino acids). These transcripts are believed most likely to function as non-coding RNAs, but their translational capacities and biological activities have not been characterized in detail. Here, we(More)
RNAi is a gene-silencing phenomenon mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and has become a powerful tool to elucidate gene function. To accomplish rapid construction of transgenes expressing dsRNA in Drosophila, we developed a novel transformation vector, pRISE, which contains an inverted repeat of the attR1-ccdB-attR2 cassette for in vitro recombination(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial tmRNA (10Sa RNA) is involved in a trans-translation reaction, which contributes to the degradation of incompletely synthesized peptides and the recycling of stalled ribosomes. To investigate the physiological roles of this reaction in Bacillus subtilis, we devised a system for detecting the proteins that are subject to in vivo(More)
Animal development fundamentally relies on the precise control, in space and time, of genome expression. Whereas we have a wealth of information about spatial patterning, the mechanisms underlying temporal control remain poorly understood. Here we show that Pri peptides, encoded by small open reading frames, are direct mediators of the steroid hormone(More)
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