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AIMS Based on an analysis of claims-based data of 8.298 million members of two German statutory health insurance funds, the aim of this contribution is to quantify age-/gender-specific prevalence/incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a German setting. METHODS AND RESULTS Patients were classified as AF prevalent, if they had received at least two(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyse which factors predict the real-world macro-/microvascular event, hospitalisation and death risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether there exists both an under- and over-treatment risk of these patients. METHODS We used a German claims/clinical data set(More)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common significant cardiac rhythm disorder. Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is recommended by guidelines in the presence of a moderate to high risk of stroke. Based on an analysis of claims-based data, the aim of this contribution is to quantify the stroke-risk dependent OAC utilisation profile of German AF patients as well(More)
The necessity for extended medication-based thromboprophylaxis after hip/knee-replacement surgery (major orthopedic surgery) has been acknowledged in international guidelines. In this article, we review and critically appraise the literature regarding patients' nonadherence (NA) in outpatient thromboprophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery. We conducted a(More)
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to describe the methodological framework underlying nonadherence (NA) measurement based on pharmacy claims data, its quantitative impact on the results of NA studies, and to identify those methodological categories most likely to explain diabetes-related clinical outcomes. We use the example of oral antidiabetics(More)
BACKGROUND According to some current guidelines, extended thromboprophylaxis after hip and knee arthroplasties is recommended. Outpatient prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) is an important part of this prophylaxis, although the rates of adherence to these regimens is not known. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES We determined (1) the degree of(More)
Cysteine cathepsins are endolysosomal cysteine proteases highly expressed in macrophages; however, their individual contributions to the elimination of bacteria and bacteria-induced cytokine production by macrophages are unknown. We assessed the contribution of cysteine cathepsins to macrophage defense pathways against Staphylococcus aureus by using(More)
Everolimus (RAD001) is an mTOR inhibitor that has been successfully used as an immunosuppressant in solid-organ transplantation. Data in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is limited. This study aimed to investigate pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of RAD001 in a canine allogeneic HSCT model. First, pharmacokinetics of RAD001(More)
Endolysosomal vesicles form a highly dynamic multifunctional cellular compartment that contains multiple highly potent proteolytic enzymes. Originally these proteases have been assigned to cooperate solely in executing the unselective 'bulk proteolysis' within the acidic milieu of the lysosome. Although to some degree this notion still holds true, evidence(More)
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a leading health problem. Compared to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, MRSA infections are associated with greater morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms underlying MRSA pathogenicity are unclear. Here we show that the protein conferring β-lactam antibiotic resistance, penicillin-binding protein 2A (encoded by(More)