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Primary human hepatocytes (hHeps) are still gold standard to perform human drug metabolism studies, but their availability is limited by donor organ scarcity. Therefore, hepatoma cell lines are widely used as alternatives, although their phases I and II drug-metabolizing activities are substantially lower compared with hHeps. The major advantage of these(More)
BACKGROUND The TGF family plays a key role in bone homeostasis. Systemic or topic application of proteins of this family apparently positively affects bone healing in vivo. However, patients with chronic inflammation, having increased TGF-β(1) serum-levels, often show reduced bone mineral content and disturbed bone healing. Therefore, we wanted to identify(More)
Patients with chronic liver diseases frequently exhibit decreased bone mineral densities (BMD), which is defined as hepatic osteodystrophy (HOD). HOD is a multifactorial disease whose regulatory mechanisms are barely understood. Thus, an early diagnosis and therapy is hardly possible. Therefore, the aim of our study consisted in characterizing a mouse model(More)
The therapeutic value of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) for bone regeneration is critically discussed. A possible reason for reduced osteogenic potential may be an age-related deterioration of the Ad-MSCs. In long term in vitro culture, epigenomic changes in DNA methylation are known to cause gene silencing, affecting stem cell growth as(More)
Consistent high-quality of papers published in ''Toxicology in Vitro'' can only be maintained with the cooperation and dedication of a number of expert referees. The Editors would like to thank all those who have donated the hours necessary to review, evaluate and comment on manuscripts; their conscientious efforts have enabled the journal to maintain its(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signalling is induced in liver as a consequence of damage and contributes to wound healing with transient activation, whereas it mediates fibrogenesis with long-term up-regulation in chronic disease. Smad-dependent TGF-beta effects are blunted by antagonistic Smad7, which is transcriptionally activated as an(More)
Proximal femur fracture, a typical fracture of the elderly, is often associated with morbidity, reduced quality of life, impaired physical function and increased mortality. There exists evidence that responses of the hematopoietic microenvironment to fractures change with age. Therefore, we investigated oxidative stress markers and oxidative stress-related(More)
Global deregulation of DNA methylation is one of the crucial causes of hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been reported that the anti-cancer drug 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) mediates the activation of tumor suppressor genes through passive demethylation by inhibiting DNMT1. Recent evidence suggests that active demethylation which is mediated by ten-eleven(More)
BACKGROUND Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in bone formation. Consequently, it was expected that topical application of recombinant human (rh)BMP-2 and rhBMP-7 would improve the healing of complex fractures. However, up to 36% of fracture patients do not respond to this therapy. There are hints that a systemic increase in transforming(More)
Affecting more than 230,000,000 patients, diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in developed countries. Among other complications, diabetic patients have an increased fracture risk and show delayed fracture healing. During the disease progression, these patients’ blood glucose and insulin levels vary significantly. Thus, the aim(More)