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The administration of leptin to leptin-deficient humans, and the analogous Lepob/Lepob mice, effectively reduces hyperphagia and obesity. But common obesity is associated with elevated leptin, which suggests that obese humans are resistant to this adipocyte hormone. In addition to regulating long-term energy balance, leptin also rapidly affects neuronal(More)
The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite in rodents and humans via hypothalamic actions. We discovered expression of ghrelin in a previously uncharacterized group of neurons adjacent to the third ventricle between the dorsal, ventral, paraventricular, and arcuate hypothalamic nuclei. These neurons send efferents onto key hypothalamic(More)
The gut hormone and neuropeptide ghrelin affects energy balance and growth hormone release through hypothalamic action that involves synaptic plasticity in the melanocortin system. Ghrelin binding is also present in other brain areas, including the telencephalon, where its function remains elusive. Here we report that circulating ghrelin enters the(More)
The fat-derived hormone leptin regulates energy balance in part by modulating the activity of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. To study the intrinsic activity of these neurons and their responses to leptin, we generated mice that express distinct green fluorescent proteins in these two neuronal types.(More)
Hypocretin has been identified as a regulator of metabolic and endocrine systems. Several brain regions involved in the central regulation of autonomic and endocrine processes or attention are targets of extensive hypocretin projections. The most dense arborization of hypocretin axons in the brainstem was detected in the locus coeruleus (LC). Multiple(More)
The gut-derived hormone ghrelin exerts its effect on the brain by regulating neuronal activity. Ghrelin-induced feeding behaviour is controlled by arcuate nucleus neurons that co-express neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP neurons). However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by ghrelin to alter NPY/AgRP neuronal activity are poorly(More)
Hypocretin (orexin) has recently been shown to increase feeding when injected into the brain. Using both rat and primate brains, we tested the hypothesis that a mechanism of hypocretin action might be related to synaptic regulation of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system. Hypocretin-immunoreactive terminals originating from the lateral hypothalamus make direct(More)
Mitochondrial uncoupling mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is classically associated with non-shivering thermogenesis by brown fat. Recent evidence indicates that UCP family proteins are also present in selected neurons. Unlike UCP1, these proteins (UCP2, UCP4 and BMCP1/UCP5) are not constitutive uncouplers and are not crucial for non-shivering(More)
The hypothalamus plays a major part in regulating energy homeostasis by integrating hormonal and nutritional signals. Increasing evidence shows that specific neurons in the hypothalamus respond to changing glucose, lipid and amino acid levels. However, the intracellular substrate for such 'fuel sensing' and its integration into the neuronal doctrine as it(More)
Previous studies have proposed roles for hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the modulation of circuit activity of the melanocortin system. Here we show that suppression of ROS diminishes pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) cell activation and promotes the activity of neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-co-producing (NPY/AgRP) neurons(More)