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BACKGROUND Great efforts have been made to increase accessibility of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low and middle-income countries. The threat of wide-scale emergence of drug resistance could severely hamper ART scale-up efforts. Population-based surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance ensures the use of appropriate first-line regimens to(More)
The occurrence of chronic myeloid leukemia in pregnancy is rare and its management poses a clinical challenge for physicians treating these patients. We report a 30-year-old woman with chronic myeloid leukemia who became pregnant twice successfully. Philadelphia-positive CML in its chronic phase was diagnosed at 16 weeks of her first gestation. At that(More)
BACKGROUND HIV circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) play an important role in the global and regional HIV epidemics, particularly in regions where multiple subtypes are circulating. To date, several (>40) CRFs are recognized worldwide with five currently circulating in Brazil. Here, we report the characterization of near full-length genome sequences (NFLG)(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic variability is a major feature of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and is considered the key factor frustrating efforts to halt the HIV epidemic. A proper understanding of HIV-1 genomic diversity is a fundamental prerequisite for proper epidemiology, genetic diagnosis, and successful drugs and vaccines design. Here, we report(More)
BACKGROUND Here, we report on the partial and full-length genomic (FLG) variability of HTLV-1 sequences from 90 well-characterized subjects, including 48 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), 35 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and 7 adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) patients, using an Illumina paired-end protocol. (More)
BACKGROUND The genetic diversity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical to lay the groundwork for the design of successful drugs or vaccine. In this study we aimed to characterize and define the molecular prevalence of HIV-1 subclade F1 currently circulating in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS A total of 36 samples were selected from 888(More)
The T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (Tim-3) receptor is highly expressed on HIV-1-specific T cells, rendering them partially "exhausted" and unable to contribute to the effective immune mediated control of viral replication. To elucidate novel mechanisms contributing to the HTLV-1 neurological complex and its classic neurological presentation called HAM/TSP(More)
BACKGROUND The findings of frequent circulation of HIV-1 subclade F1 viruses and the scarcity of BF1 recombinant viruses based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing among blood donors in Pernambuco (PE), Northeast of Brazil, were reported recently. Here, we aimed to determine whether the classification of these strains (n = 26) extends to the whole genome(More)
BACKGROUND The Interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphisms was recently reported to be associated with the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load (PvL) and the development of the HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). METHODS In an attempt to examine this hypothesis, we assessed the association of the(More)
INTRODUCTION Primary HIV infection is usually caused by R5 viruses, and there is an association between the emergence of CCXR4-utilizing strains and faster disease progression. We characterized HIV-1 from a cohort of recently infected individuals in Brazil, predicted the virus's co-receptor use based on the env genotype and attempted to correlate virus(More)