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BACKGROUND Resistance of HIV-1 to antiretroviral drugs is the main cause of antiretroviral-treatment failure. We assessed the transmission of drug-resistant variants among individuals with primary HIV-1 infection. METHODS Population-based sequencing of the viral reverse-transcriptase and protease genes derived from plasma viral RNA was done in 82(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of primary HIV infection (PHI) on the spread of HIV and the temporal trends in transmission of HIV drug resistance between 1996 and 1999 in Switzerland. METHODS Sequencing of the genes for reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease was performed for 197 individuals with documented PHI. Phylogenetic analyses were confronted with(More)
BACKGROUND Early virological failure of antiretroviral therapy associated with the selection of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in treatment-naive patients is very critical, because virological failure significantly increases the risk of subsequent failures. Therefore, we evaluated the possible role of minority quasispecies of(More)
BACKGROUND Sequence data from resistance testing offer unique opportunities to characterize the structure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemics. METHODS We analyzed a representative set of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B pol sequences from 5700 patients enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. We pooled these sequences with the same number(More)
Antiretroviral-therapy rollout in resource-poor countries is often associated with limited, if any, HIV-RNA monitoring. The effect of variable monitoring on the emergence of resistance after therapy with commonly used drug combinations was assessed by systematic review of studies reporting resistance in patients infected with HIV with a CD4 count of fewer(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term side-effects and cost of HIV treatment motivate the development of simplified maintenance. Monotherapy with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r-MT) is the most widely studied strategy. However, efficacy of LPV/r-MT in compartments remains to be shown. METHODS Randomized controlled open-label trial comparing LPV/r-MT with continued(More)
OBJECTIVES To monitor HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in a well defined urban area with large access to antiretroviral therapy and to assess the potential source of infection of newly diagnosed HIV individuals. METHODS All individuals resident in Geneva, Switzerland, with a newly diagnosed HIV infection between 2000 and 2008 were screened for HIV(More)
BACKGROUND The time passed since the infection of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual (the age of infection) is an important but often only poorly known quantity. We assessed whether the fraction of ambiguous nucleotides obtained from bulk sequencing as done for genotypic resistance testing can serve as a proxy of this parameter. (More)